China and Japan Part I, Birth of China thru the Northern Wei Gov/Hist 352 Campbell University
Japan • Land Area: 145,000 Sq. Miles/= California +/- • Population: 128 Million. 99% Japanese. 1% Korean. Low Birthrate: 1.01 in Tokyo. Low Marriage rate-”Parasite Singles.” • Arable Land: 11.64% • Natural Resources: Fish • Per Capita Income/GDP: $28,200/$3.582 Trillion • Life Expectancy: Male-78/Female-84. • Religion: Shinto, Buddhist, and animists.
Japanese Government • Form: Constitutional Monarchy • Politics: Dominated by the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP). • Policy Objectives: To secure resources. The major investor in the Pacific Rim. ODA in 1999 was $11 Billion plus private funds. • Military: Second largest military budget in world at 1% of GDP (44.3 Billion). Why? Prime Minister Shinzo Abe
Land Area: 3,723,000/Slightly< U.S. 4th largest country. Population: 1.3 Billion. One Child Policy-Impact? 92% Han Chinese. Minorities occupy 60% of land. Arable Land: 14.86% Natural Resources: Coal, Oil, Iron, Tin, Uranium, Lead, etc. Per Capita Income/GDP: $2,500/$2.97 Trillion with growth of 9.5%/year. Life Expectancy: Male-69/Female-71. Religion: Officially Atheist; but Taoism, Buddhism, Islam, Christian, Ancestor Worship. China (PRC)
Chinese Government • Form: Communist State (Peoples Republic of China). • Politics: Chinese Communist Party (CCP). • Policy Objectives: • Internal unity, economic development, trade, & secure borders. • Role of Overseas Chinese • Military: 4.3% of GDP (About 35 Billion) President Hu Jintao
China’s Military • China sees its national interest as requiring secure borders, access to resources (oil) and secure sea routes for trade. • The status of Taiwan is a continuing issue. • China is developing a “blue water” navy and modernizing its air forces. It also has demonstrated an anti-satellite missile capability. China’s newest fighter, the Jian-10
Three Gorges Dam • Located on Yangtze River, 1,500 km west of Shanghai • World’s largest dam. 1.4 miles long and 600 ft high. • Will generate 18.2 GW from twenty-six 700-MW generators. • Work began in 1993.The dam wall was completed in 2006; total completion by 2009. Ships will be able to sail to Chongqing
Taiwan (ROC) • The other China: Taiwan (Republic of China). Population: 21.7 Million • Chiang Kai-shek and Guomindang fled to Taiwan in 1949. They ruled Taiwan by marshal law until 1987. • The U.S. recognized and supported the ROC vs. the PRC as the government of China until 1972. • The Dutch and Japanese had ruled Taiwan earlier.
The Birth Of China • Peking man- 50,000 years old remains. • Yangshao Culture: As early as 6000 BCE. Painted pottery. • Longshan/Dawenkou Culture: As early as 5000 BCE. Black Pottery. Painted pottery urn. Paper thin black pottery.
The Yellow Emperor • The Yellow Emperor (2698-2598 BC) is a legendary figure from whom the Han Chinese claim descent. The term “yellow” refers to the Yellow River valley as their land of origin. • He succeeded Pan Gu, the offspring of Yin & Yang and the creator of the universe. • He is credited with founding the Chinese empire and may be linked to the Xia Dynasty.
Three Early Dynasties • Xia (Hsia) 2100-1600BC • Shang (Yin) 1600-1027 BC • Zhou (Chou) 1027-221 BC • Western Zhou, Xi’an or Chang’an, 1027-771BC • Eastern Zhou, Louyang, 770-221BC • Spring and Autumn Annals 770-476 BC • Warring States 475-221 BC.
Cultural Core Area • The formative influence was disproportionate due to idealization of past. • Nomadic people settled in protected valleys of Wei and Yellow Rivers. • Fortuitous quality of loess soil for compacting and plowing. Walls, floors and foundations. • Farmed millet; raised pigs, dogs, sheep, chickens, deer, ox, etc. • Bronze (Cooper-Tin alloy) age tools and artifacts.
Remains of Civilization • Excavation of tombs of kings and nobility such as at Anyang yielded: • Treasures of bronze. • Pottery, marble and jade. • Chariots, horses and armaments. • Remains of human sacrifices. • Dragon/oracle bones. • Post & beam construction. • Remains of city wall 60ft wide at base, 30 ft hi and 4 miles long. Anyang was the last capital of the Shang Dynasty. The Shang had 7 capitals and 30 kings.
Dragon/Oracle Bones Tortes shell and scapula were used by shamans for divination. Thousands have been recovered.
Early Writing • During the Shang Dynasty written symbols were largely pictographic. They later became ideographic and phonetic.
The Power of the Written Word • The written word was part of the shaman's magic. The aura of magic continued to surround the written word through much of China’s history. Example: Memorial to the Crocodiles. • Dragon/Oracle Bones: • Deal with war, planting, weather, hunts, journeys, etc. • Written to the Shang god: Shang Ti (original ancestor who exercised power over the weather, sun, moon and stars)and Tien (heaven).
Bronzes (Above) Shang bronze chest. (Right) Figure from Sanxindui in Southwest China.
Alter Pieces • Bronzes were principally used for ceremonial and commemorative purposes. They were frequently used as alter pieces in the worship of ancestors. • The Taotie dragon pattern is a recurrent decorative theme. The dragon guards the gates of heaven.
Shang Government • The Shang were ruled by kings whose subjects were much like extended families or clans. • Succession was from older to younger brother. • Filial piety (family loyalty) held the kingdom together. • The king’s role included religious rituals to ensure the fertility of the soil, rain, good crops, etc. • The Shang nobility conducted huge hunts in chariots which were essentially war maneuvers. • The score keeper of archery matches may have been the precursor of the mandarin.
Zhou Dynasty (1027-221 BCE) • Zhou was originally a vassal state of the Shang. • The Zhou originated the idea of the “mandate of heaven” to legitimize its conquest of the Shang. • The Zhou king’s took the title of “Son of Heaven”and ruled thru a “feudal-like” structure. • The Zhou left a remnant to continue sacrifices to the Shang ancestors. The Zhou ruled as many as 140 petite states
The Duke of Zhou • King Wu (Wu Wang) died 3 years after he conquered the Shang, leaving a 13 year old heir, King Cheng. • King Wu’s younger brother, the Duke of Zhou, declared himself regent and ruled in King Cheng’s place. • The eastern states gravitated to the Shang remnant and revolted. The Duke fought a lengthy war to defeat the rebels and consolidate the kingdom. • When King Cheng turned 17, the Duke returned the united kingdom to him and retired.
Declining Power • Just as the Zhou challenged the more civilized Shang, so other western barbarian groups and emerging states challenged and weakened Zhou. Likewise, the pleasures of the harem corrupt and dynastic decline takes its toll. • The Western Zhou finally fell when King You sought to replace his Queen with his favorite concubine, Baosi. The queen’s father, Marquess of Shen (a barbarian people) joined forces with Zheng, Lu and Qin to sack the capital and place the Queen’s son, Ji Yijui on the throne. The capital was move to Luoyang in 770 BCE..
Eastern Zhou (770-221 BCE) • The move to the eastern capital and questions about the legitimacy of the heir accelerated the decline of the Zhou. • Multiple states vied for power and position. The strongest was granted the title of Ba(Pa) to rule over a confederacy of states on behalf of the King. • In theory, only the king was absolute monarch, “son of Heaven,” empowered to perform rituals to maintain the harmony of heaven and earth, to invest feudal lords with estates and recognize new states. In fact, he became a figure head.
Spring and Autumn Annals • A history of the state of Lu and one of the 5 classics, the title of which designates the period 770-476 BCE. • Tradition holds that Confucius edited the annals. • Prominent states of the period included Qi (Shandong), Jin (Shanxi), Chu (Yangzi River) and Qin (Shaanxi).
Warring States (476-221 BCE) • The absorption of smaller states accelerated. The struggle narrowed to seven: Qi, Chu, Yan, Han, Zhao, Wei & Qin. • The size of armies increased from 30,000 to 100,000, largely composed of infantry and cavalry equipped with iron weapons. The dagger-axe pike and cross-bow were among the favored weapons. • Warlords took the title of king instead of duke, asserting equality with the King of Zhou. • Walls were built for protection. • The Hundred Schools of Philosophy emerged.
The Hundred Schools of Philosophy • The period of the Eastern Zhou was the time of the “Hundred Schools.” The term suggests an explosion of ideas. A struggle emerged between competing philosophies to achieve dominance. • A class of nobility arose in addition to the warriors who were literate, the Junzi (Chun Tzu) or Gentry, thus Gentlemen. With the Warring States period, further social mobility led to the status of the nobility being threatened. • Four major schools of thought dominated the period: Confucianism (Ru=classical tradition), Mohism, Daoism and Legalism. Legalism was the winner; it could demonstrate measurable results. It was later modified into Imperial Confucianism during the Han Dynasty.
Confucius • Lived from 551 to 475 BCE.. Born in Lu (Shandong) of noble family. Famous as a teacher and mentor. • Some portray him as unsuccessfully office seeker, whose goal was to be an advisor to kings. • The Analects are a collection of his teachings recorded by his students. Some claim that he edited the Odes and wrote the Spring & Autumn Annals. Kongfuzi/Kung Fu Tzu (Master Kong)
Confucian Teachings • He believed man was instinctively good, but required training and refinement. He placed great weight on Li (ritual) to achieve refinement. • He believed music was particularly useful as a civilizing agent. Learning to play and appreciate music taught discipline and sensitivity. • His ideal man was the “junzi,” the true gentleman. The Duke of Zhou was his model, fully versed in the humanities with a sense of propriety and “fellow feeling”/ humanness or Ren. • The junzi was a nobility of training and virtue. Noble birth was assumed. Why?
Confucian Teachings (Cont’d) • He saw proper hierarchical relationships as the key to an orderly society. There are five: father and son, ruler and minister, husband and wife, older and younger brother, friend and friend. • He expressed the importance of moral and ethical values through the concept of “rectification of names.” • He did not seek to challenge the absolute power of monarchy, only guide it. A truly virtuous king would rule thru the power of his example. • His reverence for the past reinforced ancient religious practices, such as ancestor worship.
Moism • Mo Di/Mozi (Master Mo) (470-391BCE) was of humble birth from either Song or Lu. • Like Confucius, he attracted a large following of students who recorded his teachings. He pioneered an argumentative essay style. • His writings are of a master engineer & craftsman who became an expert in defensive warfare. Understood Newton’s first law of motion. • He was a pacifist in the sense that he condemned all offensive warfare and offered his assistance to those attacked.
Moism (Cont’d) • He advocated universal love or altruism without partiality for family and friends as the way of correcting the failings of society and government. • He emphasized utilitarianism instead of tradition as a measurement for good and evil of actions. • He believed self-reflection instead of ritual was the best means of cultivating benevolence. • His ideas lost influence during the Han Dynasty, but became popular under the Republican and Communist regimes.
Mencius • Mencius was born in Zhou and is considered to be the Second Sage (or St. Paul) of Confucianism. • He believed man was innately good. Society or environment was responsible for bad moral character. As evidence he cited the Four Sprouts or Beginnings: • a. Alarm and distress. • b. Commiseration. • c. Deference and compliance. • d. Realization of right and wrong. Meng Tzu/Mengke/ko (372-289 BCE
Mencius (Cont’d) • His view of the Mandate of Heaven was essentially that of a social contract. The right of revolt was implicit. • The king should rule thru the power of his goodness which would transform society. • The duty of government/society was to nurture goodness, thereby transforming the individual. • His model sage was Shun, a man of lowly birth who attained such virtue and wisdom that King Yao abdicated in his favor.
Daoism/Taoism • Dao/Tao means “the way” or path of the universe. • Both philosophical and religious forms exist based on the Laozi and Zhuangzi. The religious form was associated with alchemy, magic, fortune telling, secret societies, etc.. • The Daoism is attributed to Laozi (Master Lao), a putative figure who claimed to live before Confucius. His writings suggest the opposite. Yin-Yang symbol
Daoism (Cont’d) • Daoism asserts people are good in their natural state. They should be left alone to live in harmony with nature.(Akin to noble savages.) • Daoism is iconoclastic. It challenges conventional morality and the values of Confucianism, Moism and (later)Buddhism. • As related to government, Daoism advocates mitigated anarchism. Government acts by non-acting, doing as little as possible and not disturbing the people’s Wa. Confucius, Buddha & Laozi tasting the vinegar.
Daoism (Cont’d) • The ideal Daoist society would be one in which the people live in primal simplicity and ignorance. • The ideal Daoist human is one who functions intuitively and is not bothered by artificial concepts of good & evil. • Daoist anecdotes convey a sense of perspective, such as Zhuangzi and the Butterfly. Hell Bank Notes are being replaced by Hell Bank Visa Cards.
I Ching/Jing or Book of Changes • The I Ching is a book of numerology which is primarily associated with Daoism. • The book is based on the interpretation of 64 hexagrams, each composed of two trigrams. The trigrams are combinations of three solid and/or broken lines. • Solid lines are considered to be yang, broken are yin.
The Five Elements/Agents • In ancient Chinese philosophy, the five elements were used to describe the interactions and relationships between phenomena, such as seasons, colors, notes, smells, directions, etc. • The elements also correspond to yin-yang. Earth, water and wood are considered yin; fire and metal are yang. The Five Elements have been used in music, medicine, military science, acupuncture, psychology, geomancy, etc.
Xunzi/Hsun Tzu • Xunzi (Xun Kuang) is one of the three great Confucian philosophers. He lived during the Warring States period, studied and taught in the Jixia academy in Qi and later held office in the Chu. • His most famous students were Han Feizi and Li Si, who opposed Chu and were instrumental in the unification of China under the Qin Dynasty. Xunzi was born in Zhao in 312 BCE. Lived until 220BCE.
Xunzi (Cont’d) • Xunzi advocates the Way (Dao) of the sages, of good government and proper behavior. The Way is taught thru ritual. • He does not believe in Heaven’s intervention; nevertheless, recommends ritual prayer and sacrifices. Why? • He believes that man instinctively makes bad choices and is morally blind, i.e., he is bad. His instincts lead to conflict. • The role of education is to transform man by changing his basic instincts.
Legalism • Founded by Han Feizi (280-233 BCE) and Li Si in the late Warring States period. Han Fei was the theoretician; Li Si was the politician. • Han Fei was a prince of Han. He wrote a book (55 chapters) to compensate for stuttering. Was employed by Qin as an ambassador. In 234 BCE, he was charged with treason by Li Si. • Li Si (280 – 208 BCE) was from Chu. He was Chancellor of Qin from 246-208 BCE and responsible for its policies after unifying China. School of Law
Legalism (Cont’d) • Three principles are central to Legalism. • Law: Laws must be written, publicized and equally applied to all, regardless of rank or circumstances, as immutably as the laws of nature. • Legitimacy: Power is vested in the position, not the man. The structure of the state should be strong enough to allow even an average person to rule successfully. • Morality: Morality and human nature are irrelevant. Rewards and punishments are all that matter. • The old feudal relationships were dead. • The goal was to build a strong state and military.
Shang Yang • Qin began its rise to power when Shang Yang (Gongsun Yang/Lord Shang) became chief advisor to the Duke of Xiao (361-338 BCE). He was born in Zhou and possibly served as a royal tutor in Wei. • He brought Li Kui’s Book of Law (407 BCE) from Wei and implemented it in 356 BCE. • King Huiwen put him and his family to death in 338 BCE as revenge for having been punished earlier without regard for his rank.. Shang Yang
Shang Yang’s Policies • Implemented the Book of Law with the addition of providing punishments equal to that of the perpetrator for those failing to report crimes. • Stripped the nobility of land rights and titles. Replaced the nobility with a military rank structure. Assigned ranks and land to soldiers based upon military success. • Encouraged agriculture over commerce and the cultivation of unsettled lands and wastelands. Encouraged immigration. • Burnt Confucian books. Why? • Standardized land allocation and taxes.
Shang Yang’s Policies (Cont’d) 6.Established a central bureaucracy and divided the state into administrative districts instead of feudal domains. 7. Taxed peasants directly. 8. Conscripted all males between 15 and 56. 9. Eliminated primogeniture as a means of deconstructing the extended family clan system. 10. Implemented a Horizontal Alliance strategy of foreign relations. Befriend distant states; conquer neighboring states. 11. Considered all culture and traditional virtues a waste.
The Qin Dynasty • The Qin unified China in 221 BCE, but only lasted until 207. The regime was as revolutionary as Mao’s • China was divided into 36 commanderies which were subdivided into counties, all under central control. • The feudal nobility was replaced and officials assigned on the basis of performance, not birth. • The title of Emperor was taken by the ruler instead of king (wang), the first supreme ultimate. Shi Huangdi
Qin Dynasty (Cont’d) • Uniform laws were enforced without regard to position or title. • Weights and measures were standardized for the whole country. • Axle widths were standardized. • Standardized and simplified the written language. • The population was disarmed, including the Junzi.
Qin Dynasty (Cont’d) • 120,000 aristocratic families were transported to Shaanxi. • Built the Great Wall, 1,400 miles long as a defense against the Xiongnu. • Built roads and canals. • Burned the books of all other philosophies. • Executed 460 scholars for concealing books. • Exhausted the country thru taxes and labor demands.
Qin Shi Huangdi • Qin Shi Huangdi died while on an inspection tour. Li Si and Zhao Gao ( a eunuch) conspired to keep his death a secret until they could forge a will directing the heir, Er Shi Huangdi, to commit suicide. Why? He did, leaving the third son. • In 1974, a peasant accidentally unearthed the tomb of Qin Shi Huangdi about 20 miles east of Xian. There are 8,099 terracotta figures plus a complete world with stars and rivers. Terracotta soldiers:Qin tomb
Han Dynasty (206 BCE –220CE) • The death of Qin Shi Huangdi led to a civil war in which many previously existing states reemerged. • The final struggle is called the Chu-Han Contention. It pitted Xiang Yu of Chu nobility against Liu Bang, a peasant who became prince of Han. • Xiang Yu sought to restore the old aristocracy. Xiang Yu won the battles; Liu Bang’s politician skills won the war. Han Gaozu/Liu Bang (247-195 BCE)