British Rule in Palestine Benjamin Cheong Cheng Wei Hong Aaron Tang
The Turkish Ottoman Empire fell apart during WWI. Weizmann, leader of Zionism persuaded Britain in giving him support to create a Jewish homeland in Palestine. • After many years Weizmann eventually won British support. This success resulted from his friendship with the leading British politician, James Balfour. Weizmann met Balfour in 1906 and 1914 and impressed him with his case of a Jewish homeland. • However, though Balfour was sympathetic, he was not in the government and the government did not take Zionism very seriously.
In the Sykes- Picot plan, Middle East was to be divided into areas of distinct British and French control with Britain in control of Palestine and Iraq. When Balfour became the foreign minister, he persuaded the Cabinet to support Zionism. Most of his colleagues were not favourable towards this but Balfour convinced them to bring the Americans into the war and Balfour persuaded them that support for Zionism would go well in the USA. The British government issued a statement of supporting Zionism in a little from Balfour to the leading British Jew Lord Rothschild.
The British army entered Jerusalem in 5 weeks after the issuing of the Balfour Declaration. British control of Palestine was confirmed in the peace treaties which followed end of WWI. At the time, a LON was set up to ensure world peace and it authorized the British to continue to rule Palestine.
In the late 19th Century, the Arabs tried to remove their Turkish rulers. The opportunity came during WWI. Turkey fought on the German side against British and its allies. • The British were afraid that their supplies of oil from Persia and Iran may be cut off by the Turks. • Therefore, the British encouraged the Arabs to rebel against their Turkish rulers and seek independence. • In return, the British will be ready to recognize and support the independence of the Arabs. However, by 1916, the Arabs were angered that the British did not keep their promises.
During the next decade, the British government allowed Jews from eastern Europe to enter Palestine. In 1918, there were over half a million Palestines in the territory and 66 000 Jews. The number of Jewish immigrants gradually increase under the British rule. Between 1919 and 1923, about 20 000 Jews entered Palestine. • These new immigrants were for most part committed Zionists and they played a major part in building up the Jewish community in Palestine. A bigger influx of Jewish immigrants arrived in the period of 1924-28. In 1925 alone, 33 000 Jews came to Palestine. • Many if these immigrants moved to the cities of Haifa, Jerusalem and the new Jewish city of Tel Aviv.
The Jewish populations of Haifa and Jerusalem double in 5 years. The British allowed the Jews of Palestine to set up organizations in order to administer the life of the growing Jewish community. These organizations were later to develop into the institutions of modern Israel. • A Zionist Executive (later know as the Jewish Agency) was established as the highest authority in the Jewish community. Aspects of economic life were governed by the Histadrut – this was both a trade union organisation and the governing body for a huge number of cooperative firms. • Unofficially, the Jews of Palestine were also permitted to set up an armed force known as the Haganah. The Haganah eventually evolved into the army of the new state of Israel. The Jews were also buying land in their country.
The end of the large-scale American immigration propagated immigration of Jews to Palestine to intensify. In 1924, the government of the USA closed its frontiers to future large-scale immigration. • Before this date, America had been by far the most popular destination for Jewish people looking for a new home. More than a million Jew emigrated to the USA between 1880 and 1914. Only 65 000 Jews moved to Palestine in the same period. After 1924, Palestine became the only possible destination for many Jews who wanted to escape persecution in Europe. • In 1933, Hitler came to power in Germany and Nazi anti-Semitism drove many Jews abroad. Thousands fled to Palestine and by 1939, nearly 450 000 Jews came to Palestine. Tensions grew as Arabs feared losing their country. • This immigration of Jews into Palestine, caused the Palestinians to feel threaten of their own existence and the Jews were gradually taking away their land. The competition of scarce resource (land) led to the conflict between the Palestinians and the Jews.
In 1921, an Arab mob set upon the Jews at the port of Jaffa where 200 Jews and 120 Arabs were dead or wounded. In 1929, violence erupted again in the city of Jerusalem, the Holy City for Jews and 3rd most important city for Muslims. • In August, large Arab crowds attacked Jews inside and outside the city. In 4 days, 133 Jews were killed, including 60 in the town of Hebron. There were further similar outbreaks in early 1930s. • This manifested the Arabs unhappiness towards the British in allowing the Jews to enter their land and they wanted the British to change this policy and stop the immigration of Jews.
The History of Palestine • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n3bxj1uvDXU • (2min – 4min)
Arab Revolt Arab Revolt
Information When?: April 1936 What?: Riots Where?: Jaffa Who?: The Arab Higher Committee, headed by the Mufti HajAmin al-Husseini, led the campaign of terrorism against Jewish and British targets This commences a 3-year period of violence and civil strife in Palestine that is known as the Arab Revolt
Strikes • At the start, the Arabs began by proclaiming an Arab general strike and boycott of Jewish enterprises and products. Goals/Purpose: They made demands on the British Mandate administration, principally: • An end to Jewish immigration • An end to transfers of land to Jewish owners • A new “general representative government” Jewish enterprises and products
Cont’d The strike quickly led to a campaign of terror against Jewish people and lands
Development 17 Jews were killed the first day, with little action by the British to stop the rioters. Sparked by the Mufti’s agitators, armed bands of Arab terrorists attacked Jewish villages and vehicles, as well as British Army and police forces. Cause Arab to be more upset By August 1936, responding more to attacks on British assets than to the Jewish losses, the British began a military crackdown on the Arab terrorists.
Intensification • The intensity of the Palestinian Revolt, at a time when Britain was preparing for the possibility of another world war, led the British to reorient their policy in Palestine. • As war with Germany became imminent, Britain's dependence on Middle Eastern oil increase, and therefore the need for Arab goodwill, loomed increasingly large.
Intensification Jewish leverage in the Foreign Office, had waned; the pro-Zionists and Balfour , had left the Foreign Office and the new administration was not inclined toward the Zionist position. Furthermore, the Jews had little choice but to support Britain against Nazi Germany. The other hand
Thus… • Britain's commitment to a Jewish homeland in Palestine dissipated, and the Mandate authorities pursued a policy of appeasement with respect to the Arabs.
Cease Casualties: The toll was very high. (80 Jews were murdered by terrorist acts during the labour strike and a total of 415 Jewish deaths were recorded during the entire 1936-1939 Arab Revolt period The Arab strike ended in October 1936 and a temporary peace between Arabs and Jews prevailed for almost 1year. Then, in September 1937, following the July report by the Peel Commission, the violent tactics resumed.Armed Arab terrorism, under the direction of the Higher Committee was used to attack the Jews and to suppress Arab opponents. This campaign of violence lasted through 1938 and then tapered off, ending in early 1939.
The Peel Commission The one who headed the Peel Commission. Because of the violence, Britain set up a new Royal Commission(the Peel Commission) to examine the conflict between Arabs and Jews in Palestine. A long-termed solution was mandatory for the political future of Palestine. William Peel
Why the Arabs were angry with the peel commission’s report? Pointing the finger at Arabs Peel Commission attributed the underlying cause of the Arab revolt to the desire of the Arabs for national independence and their hatred and fear of the establishment of a National Jewish Home
Why the Arabs were angry with the peel commission’s report? Loss of Land The Commission recommended freezing Jewish immigration at 12,000 per year for five years and that a plan for partition of the land be developed.
Results The British military suppressed the Arab terrorists, but the British government in effect rewarded them with the publication of the 1939 White Paper, a pro-Arab policy statement that effectively ended the British commitment to the purpose of the Palestine Mandate.
White Paper In 1939 the British called for a conference of Arabs and Jews to discuss various scenarios. The St. James Conference, also known as the Round Table Conference of 1939, brought together Arab and Jewish delegations, each with their own internal differences. On the Jewish side, both Zionist and non-Zionist groups within the Jewish Agency attended, organized under the leadership of Chaim Weizmann. The Arabs were led by the Mufti Haj Amin al-Husseini, and included the more moderate party of the well-known al-Nashashibi family. In addition to the Arabs of Palestine, the Arabs of Egypt, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Transjordan, and Yemen were also represented.
So….. • In the 1939 White Paper, the limitation on Jewish immigration was made permanent. • 75 000 Jewish immigrants would be allowed to enter Palestine over a five year period and any subsequent increase would require the o of the Arabs. acquiescence
In Other Words Due to intense Arab apprehension about Jewish immigration, further admission of Jewish immigrants will be limited to 75,000 over the next five years so that the number of Jews in the country would not exceed one-third of the total population. This total will consist of 10,000 per year plus 25,000 refugees. Transfers of land from Arabs to Jews will be severely restricted in most areas of the country. The British 欺骗我的感情! I am very angry with them! As angry as angry birds!!!
References • http://www.activehistory.co.uk/main_area/worksheets/ib_middle_east/0_1914-47/02a_Overview.gif • http://www.palestinefacts.org/pf_mandate_peel.php • http://www.palestinefacts.org/pf_mandate_riots_1936-39.php • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/McMahon–Hussein_Correspondence • http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/History/riots36.html • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yishuv