I. British Rule in India Ch. 6, Sec. 3
The Taj Mahal in Agra, built between 1630-1653 in Agra by Shah Jahan. It is a tomb for Jahan’s wife Mumtaz Mahal, who died giving birth to their 14th child. Shah Jehan's cenotaph, offset from center
The Taj Mahal Calligraphy from the Qur’an July, 2013
A. British economic interests began in 1600’s w/ the East India Company. The company operated a vast & profitable network of merchant fleets & trading ports like Chennai, India, shown here. Trading posts in Bombay, Madras, and Calcutta. Protesting the British East India Company’s trade monopoly sparked the Boston Tea Party in 1773.
As the Mughal Empire declined (by 1707), Britain seized Indian territory and soon controlled almost the whole subcontinent.
B. In 1757, Robert Clive & E.I.C. defeated the Indian forces. 1. Until 1858, the E.I.C. was dominant power in India. Robert Clive meeting with Mir Jafar after the 1762 Battle of Plassey, by Francis Hayman.
2. Their own army – Led by British officers & staffed by sepoys (Indian soldiers).
India was Britain’s “Jewel in the Crown” – The most valuable of all Britain’s colonies. The Industrial Revolution turned Britain into the world’s workshop, and India was a major supplier of raw materials for that workshop. Its 300 million people (then) were also a large market for British goods.
C. Restrictions on the Indian economy. 1. India made to produce materials & buy British goods. 2. Prohibited competition w/ British goods. India’s handloom textile industry was nearly put out of business by imported British textiles.
D. Transport Trade Goods. 1. Established railroad network for raw materials & goods. 2. Agricultural products: tea, coffee, indigo, cotton, & opium. Sri Lanka station, 1880’s
E. Sepoy Mutiny (1857-1858). 1. Rumor of British issuing the sepoys new bullets greased w/ cow & pig fat. It failed due to the lack of unity among the many factions of India, particularly Hindus and Muslims. The cow was sacred to Hindus, and the pig was taboo to Muslims. Called the First War of Independence in India.
Sepoy Mutiny (1857): rebellion of Indian soldiers against British Empire
F. Viceroy – Governor who ruled as a representative of the monarch. Queen Victoria of England After 1877, a Viceroy was a British governor-general in India who carried out the gov’ts orders.
G. Impact of Colonialism. 1. Negatives: a). British held political & economic power. b) Restricted Indian industries (textiles). c) Lost self-sufficiency & emphasized cash crops. d) Less food production. e) Threatened traditional life. Famines in late 1800’s
Roads, telephone & telegraph lines, → dams, bridges, & canals 2. Positives: a) Railroad network (major British achievement). b) Built infrastructure. c) Improve sanitation & public health. d) Better education (English). e) Ended warfare among local rulers.
Hinduism is the world’s third largest religion (after Christianity and Islam) of 1 billion, and is considered the oldest surviving religion. Hinduism has no known founder. Parvati or Durga or Shakti, the consort of Shiva, is perhaps the most important goddess of Hindus. She is a multi- dimensional goddess and has many names, personalities and facets.
► Hinduism encompasses many religious beliefs, traditions, practices, and denominations. ► Most believe in One Supreme Cosmic Spirit (Brahman) that may be worshiped in many forms. ► Represented by individual deities such as Vishnu, Shiva, and Shakti. ► Within the Hindu trinity of Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva, Brahma is the creator, Vishnu the preserver and Shiva the destroyer. ► Centered around a variety of practices that are meant to help one experience the Divinity that is everywhere and realize the true nature of the Self. Hindu temple in New Delhi, India.
Norton Simon Museum A strong familial bond is expressed in this sculpture depicting the Hindu god Shiva, his spouse Parvati, and their son Skanda (god of war). Durga (Shakti) engages the buffalo titan, 1825. Vishnu is the preserver of the universe and the embodiment of truth, goodness, and mercy. Shiva, the Hindu god of destruction, is depicted here dancing within a circle of flames.
India’s population: 1,095,351,995 (July 2006)
Children play in a puddle of water in an Indian slum of Mumbai. Hundreds of millions of Indians, including children and elders, struggle to survive in appalling conditions on less than $1 a day. About 30 percent of India's more than one billion people (350-400 million) live below the official poverty line of 2,100-2,400 calories a day. Also, more than 40 per cent of the population is illiterate.
I. Nationalism. 1. Indian National Congress - 1885. 2. Early 1900’s, wanted Indian self- gov’t. Delegates of the first Indian National Congress (INC), Dec 28, 1885
Mahatma means “Great Soul” J. Mahatma (Mohandas) Gandhi. 1. Indian independence movement. 2. “Civil Disobedience.” 3. Father of India. 4. Influenced other civil rights leaders. Outside Gandhi’s law practice in South Africa, before returning home to India.
Mahatma (Mohandas) Gandhi. (Oct 2, 1869 – Jan 30, 1948) • Major political and spiritual leader of the Indian Independence movement. • Resistance through mass civil disobedience and non-violence. • One of the strongest philosophies of freedom struggles worldwide. • Worked for the alleviation of poverty, liberation of women, brotherhood, and an end to the caste system. • Inspired civil rights leaders such as Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., Steve Biko, Nelson Mandela, and Aung San Suu Kyi. • Honored as the “Father of the Nation” in India.
“Complete civil disobedience is rebellion without the element of violence in it. An out and out civil resister simply ignores the authority of the state. He becomes an outlaw claiming to disregard every unmoral state law…. In doing all this he never uses force and never resists force when it is used against him. In fact, he invites imprisonment and other uses of force.” - Mohandas Gandhi.
ACTIVITY In groups of 3-4, discuss how Gandhi’s methods of non-violence influenced the U.S. civil rights movements and other peace activists. Aung San Suu Kyi, Myanmar (Burma) Stephen Bantu Biko, South Africa Nelson Mandela, South Africa Martin Luther King, Jr., U.S.A.