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Culture under British Rule

Culture under British Rule

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Culture under British Rule

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  1. Culture under British Rule

  2. Population of the new British colony • Understandthat the Canadiens were a large majority of the population.

  3. Whatdid the Canadiens think? • The French Canadiens wereveryafraidthattheir culture and way of life wouldbecrushedafter the change of empire.

  4. Rebellions in the 13 colonies • UnderstandthatBritainwasafraid the Canadiens wouldjoin the 13 colonies in theirrebellion.

  5. Why conciliation? • Conciliation: come to a compromise, agreement. • Because the Canadiens were a majority, British authoritieswanted to keepthem happy sotheywouldbeloyal to British crown.

  6. Consideration for the elite • To gain loyalty, British authoritiestreated the Canadiens elite and Catholicclergywithconsideration. • Catholic Church hadconsideratble influence over population.

  7. Collaboration • The Catholic Church encouraged the habitants to submit to the British authoritiesbecausetheywanted to preservetheirpowers and privileges.

  8. The Royal Proclamation • Goal: to assimilate the Canadiens people. • Bring in British laws, Protestant religion, township system.

  9. Whywas the Royal Proclamation onlyPartiallyimplemented? • TO KEEP THE CANADIENS HAPPY! • Britainwasafraidtheywouldrebel, like the 13 colonies..

  10. Promoting collaboration • The Catholic Church promotedsubmission to British authorities by: • Threatening excommunication • Reading newspapersfrom the pulpit (Quebec Gazette was official voice of British authorities)

  11. Liberalismspreads • British colonistswereused to certain rights in Britain: • LegislativeAssembly – the people had a voice in the government, the power of the monarchwaslimited. • Habeas corpus – Right to beseen by a judgebeforebeingimprisoned. • Freedom of expression, freedom of press

  12. Canadien professionals • The Canadien professionalsalsowantedtheirvoiceheard in the government. • Theywanted a LegislativeAssemblyso the rights of the French Canadiens couldbeprotected.

  13. ConstitutionalAct 1791 • Because of differentdemands of French and English, two Canadas wereformed. • Each Canada wasgivenitsownlegislativeassembly. • Legislativeassemblyhadlimited power. An appointedcouncilwasaboveit.

  14. Election of 1792 • A Canadienmajority won the election in Lower Canada, and opposition between British and Canadien started. Whichlanguage? • This opposition wasexpressedthroughvariousnewspaperswheredifferingviewpointswereexpressed.

  15. Nationalism • A nation is made up of people whosharecommoncharacteristics. • Promoting and protectingyour nation.

  16. Republicanism • People shouldbe able to participate in the government and running of their state. • Political groups started to demand more power for the people in government.

  17. Parti Patriote • Keep in mindthat not all Canadiens supported the Parti Patriote • Parti patriote promotedtheirideasthroughassemblies (outsidechurches) and throughpolitical associations (Société St Jean Baptiste) • Represented the French-canadiannationalism

  18. Canadien radicalizedtheirideas • Parti Patriote wasformedbecause Canadiens were not satisfiedwith the level of representation the people weregiven in the government. • The Parti patriote hadmanydemandsthat British authoritiesdid not meet. • Theytook up arms in a rebellion

  19. Parti Patriote • The rebelliondid not last long, British authoritiesdealtharshlywith Patriotes.

  20. Act of the Union • When the 2 Canadas wereunited, the Canadienswerenow a minority.

  21. Survivalnationalism • Facedwith the threat of assimilation, the Catholic Church preached a conservative survivalnationalism. • Theywereconcernedwithprotecting the Canadien culture and heritage.

  22. Ultramontanism • Church shouldbeinvolved in all aspects of life. • Education • Health • Social services • Leisureactivities • Librarieshadonly Church approved books, certain activitieslikeskiingweredenounced!

  23. Ultramontanism 1840s • Increase in number of clergy • Increase in literacy rate

  24. Institut Canadien de Montreal • In1844, youngprofessionals and intellectualsformed a group wheretheycouldgettogether and discuss issues/topics the Church was not in favour of. • Theyhadlibrarieswith science textbooks and foreignnewspapers Theyhadtheirownnewspapercalled l’Avenir.

  25. Clergy’sresponse • Got the Pope to close the Institut Canadien • Excommunicateditsmembers • Didn’tlikethat the libraryhadmany books banned by the Vatican and that Anglophone Protestants werewelcome to join.

  26. Anticlericalism • Beliefthat the Church shouldonlybeinvolved in religion, nothingelse. • Manywhowereinvolved in the Institut developedanticlericalbeliefs.

  27. Printing press

  28. Hospital ward