Population of the new British colony • Understandthat the Canadiens were a large majority of the population.
Whatdid the Canadiens think? • The French Canadiens wereveryafraidthattheir culture and way of life wouldbecrushedafter the change of empire.
Rebellions in the 13 colonies • UnderstandthatBritainwasafraid the Canadiens wouldjoin the 13 colonies in theirrebellion.
Why conciliation? • Conciliation: come to a compromise, agreement. • Because the Canadiens were a majority, British authoritieswanted to keepthem happy sotheywouldbeloyal to British crown.
Consideration for the elite • To gain loyalty, British authoritiestreated the Canadiens elite and Catholicclergywithconsideration. • Catholic Church hadconsideratble influence over population.
Collaboration • The Catholic Church encouraged the habitants to submit to the British authoritiesbecausetheywanted to preservetheirpowers and privileges.
The Royal Proclamation • Goal: to assimilate the Canadiens people. • Bring in British laws, Protestant religion, township system.
Whywas the Royal Proclamation onlyPartiallyimplemented? • TO KEEP THE CANADIENS HAPPY! • Britainwasafraidtheywouldrebel, like the 13 colonies..
Promoting collaboration • The Catholic Church promotedsubmission to British authorities by: • Threatening excommunication • Reading newspapersfrom the pulpit (Quebec Gazette was official voice of British authorities)
Liberalismspreads • British colonistswereused to certain rights in Britain: • LegislativeAssembly – the people had a voice in the government, the power of the monarchwaslimited. • Habeas corpus – Right to beseen by a judgebeforebeingimprisoned. • Freedom of expression, freedom of press
Canadien professionals • The Canadien professionalsalsowantedtheirvoiceheard in the government. • Theywanted a LegislativeAssemblyso the rights of the French Canadiens couldbeprotected.
ConstitutionalAct 1791 • Because of differentdemands of French and English, two Canadas wereformed. • Each Canada wasgivenitsownlegislativeassembly. • Legislativeassemblyhadlimited power. An appointedcouncilwasaboveit.
Election of 1792 • A Canadienmajority won the election in Lower Canada, and opposition between British and Canadien started. Whichlanguage? • This opposition wasexpressedthroughvariousnewspaperswheredifferingviewpointswereexpressed.
Nationalism • A nation is made up of people whosharecommoncharacteristics. • Promoting and protectingyour nation.
Republicanism • People shouldbe able to participate in the government and running of their state. • Political groups started to demand more power for the people in government.
Parti Patriote • Keep in mindthat not all Canadiens supported the Parti Patriote • Parti patriote promotedtheirideasthroughassemblies (outsidechurches) and throughpolitical associations (Société St Jean Baptiste) • Represented the French-canadiannationalism
Canadien radicalizedtheirideas • Parti Patriote wasformedbecause Canadiens were not satisfiedwith the level of representation the people weregiven in the government. • The Parti patriote hadmanydemandsthat British authoritiesdid not meet. • Theytook up arms in a rebellion
Parti Patriote • The rebelliondid not last long, British authoritiesdealtharshlywith Patriotes.
Act of the Union • When the 2 Canadas wereunited, the Canadienswerenow a minority.
Survivalnationalism • Facedwith the threat of assimilation, the Catholic Church preached a conservative survivalnationalism. • Theywereconcernedwithprotecting the Canadien culture and heritage.
Ultramontanism • Church shouldbeinvolved in all aspects of life. • Education • Health • Social services • Leisureactivities • Librarieshadonly Church approved books, certain activitieslikeskiingweredenounced!
Ultramontanism 1840s • Increase in number of clergy • Increase in literacy rate
Institut Canadien de Montreal • In1844, youngprofessionals and intellectualsformed a group wheretheycouldgettogether and discuss issues/topics the Church was not in favour of. • Theyhadlibrarieswith science textbooks and foreignnewspapers Theyhadtheirownnewspapercalled l’Avenir.
Clergy’sresponse • Got the Pope to close the Institut Canadien • Excommunicateditsmembers • Didn’tlikethat the libraryhadmany books banned by the Vatican and that Anglophone Protestants werewelcome to join.
Anticlericalism • Beliefthat the Church shouldonlybeinvolved in religion, nothingelse. • Manywhowereinvolved in the Institut developedanticlericalbeliefs.