Rise of the British East India Company • Causes • land and trade • lack of Indian unity/rival kingdoms/conflict • long decline of Mughal Empire • Seven Years War (1756 – 1763) • British/French Rivalry • Treaty of Paris 1763: Britain rights in India • Robert Clive: BEIC
Rise of the British East India Company • Effects • competition between British and French for control of India – defeat of French in Bengal • wealth from India • right to collect taxes from Mughal Empire • protect BEIC with laws and courts • control more land – direct/indirect rule
Sepoy Rebellion (1857) • Causes • sepoy: Indian troop who served in British Army • 1st wide spread Indian rebellion • grievances against British rule • interfered with social and religious customs • Examples • High taxes on farmers • Resentment of Christian missionaries • Lose caste if traveled overseas • Muslim and Hindus together • cartridge grease
MangalPandey(19 July 1827 – 8 April 1857) • Indian soldier who played a key part in events immediately preceding the outbreak of the Sepoy • contemporary British opinion considered him a traitor and mutineer • Pandey is widely regarded as a freedom fighter in modern India. • 1984, the Indian government issued a postage stamp to commemorate him.
Sepoy Rebellion • Effects • India becomes a British colony/direct rule (1858) • Act for Better Government For India • increased distrust between Indians and British • official start of British Raj (British rule in India)
British Improved Indian Infrastructure • Causes • the British wanted to increase trade and control their colony • Sepoy Rebellion
British Improved Indian Infrastructure • Effects • improved/built roads, railroads, modernized ports, telegraphs, schools, health care • improved response to uprisings/disasters • increased trade • better control of colony by British • India more connected
New Economic Patterns • Causes • British Raj • Industrial Revolution • Need for raw materials and foreign markets • Discouraged local Indian industries and limited Indian imports to Britain
New Economic Patterns • Effects (Listing Question) • Destroyed Indian traditional economy • Locally made goods disappeared • Indians bought expensive British made products: imports • Cash crop economy • Less food crops • India dependent on Great Britain
Social Changes • Causes • British Raj: imposed British way of life • better health care/improved sanitary conditions • need for jobs • schools/colleges for higher castes • ethnocentrism of British education • Outlawed certain customs
Social Changes • Effects (Listing Question) • population growth • Urbanization • Loss of traditional ways of life • British educated Indian middle class • make like British (p.197) • English a common language • learned about liberty, freedom, democracy • resentment to British rule = rise of Indian nationalism
Formation of the INC (1885) • Causes • Indian Educated elite = learning about liberty, freedom, democracy • wanted to return to Hindu traditions = Hindu nationalism • wanted political reform
Formation of the INC (1885) • Effects • gradual political change/more gov’t jobs to Indians • 1920: Gandhi: wanted home rule
Formation of the Muslim League (1906) • Causes • Hindu Nationalism/Formation of INC • respect for Muslim Culture/past conflicts • protection of Muslim rights • Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Formation of the Muslim League (1906) • Effects • Increased tension between Hindus and Muslims • Push to divide India into 2 nations based on religion
Closure • With a partner or independently evaluate whether the economic and social changes were positive (+) or negative (-) on India. • Place a “+” for positive or a “-” next to each effect under “New Economic Patterns” and “Social Changes” • On the back of the Chart:Were the effects of the British Raj on India mostly positive or negative? Support your answer with several pieces of evidence.