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  1. Aztec Jayce Allred Kenzie Chadwick

  2. Achievements • An advanced calendar system • Pictographs • Jewelry • Medicine • A huge empire filled with millions of people • Structures - Statues, Pyramids, Temples

  3. Politics • Aztec empire was made up of a series of city-states that was known as Altepetl. • Each altepetl was ruled by a supreme leader, tlatoani and a supreme judge and administrator, cihuacoatl. • The tlatoani was the owner of all land in his city-state; he received tribute, oversaw markets and temples, led the military, and resolved judicial disputes. • The cihuacoatl was the second in command and served as the supreme judge for the court system; He appointed all lower court judges, and handled the financial affairs of the altepetl.

  4. Politics • New emperors were elected by a high council of four nobles who were related to the rulers before. • Emperors were usually chosen from among the brothers or sons of the deceased ruler. • Even though the emperor had absolute power, he governed with the assistance of four advisors and one senior advisor who were elected by the nobility.

  5. Social Structure • Tlatoani; King or paramount chief • Cihuacoatl; Chief minister and deputy • Tlacatecatl, Tlacochcalcatl, Tlillancalqui, Ezhuahuancatl; Next most senior • Tecuhtli; Senior nobility and heads of noble houses • Pilli; The very highest social sphere in Aztec society • Cuauhpilli; Non-hereditary nobility • Calpullec; Leaders of each district • Pochtec; Professional travelling merchants • Macehualli; The peasantry

  6. Social Structure • Aztec state was authoritarian • Monarch held all power • A council of lords and government officials assisted the Aztec ruler • The nobility, the elite of the society was the government • The rest of the population was commoners/merchants/craftspeople, indentured workers, and slaves • Commoners were mostly farmers. Merchants traded goods that were made by the craftspeople

  7. Religion • Strengthened by their belief in a sign that would come from their god of war and the god of sun. • Huitzilophochtli, the god told them that when they saw an eagle perched on a cactus growing out of a rock, their journey would end. • The Aztecs had a polytheistic religion (they believed in many gods.).

  8. Religion • Their “supreme” god, Ometeol, represented the all-powerful forces of the heavens. • Huitzilphochtli was another important god to Aztec warriors as they expanded control over neighboring people. • Quetzalcoatl had a more direct impact on peoples lives. • The Aztecs religion was based on a belief in unending struggles between good and evil forces throughout the universe. World History, Glencoe, 2010

  9. Geography • Located in Central Mexico. • Became a very powerful civilization as they learned important skills like how to grow corn and eventually adapted to their environment they migrated into in the early 1100s. • Constructed pyramids that were much like the ones the ziggurats of Mesopotamia had created.

  10. Geography • There was an island in Lake Texcoco and this was where they had built “Tenochitlan”; there capital in 1335. • About 300,000 Aztec people lived on the capital island. • They got off the island using paved roads over water called “causeways”. • The Aztec capital contained everything they needed for living everyday life. • The king, his family, and thousands of servants and officials lived in a huge palace in the capital.

  11. Economics • Economy was based on farming. • Corn was there most valued crop, but farmers also grew beans, squash, peppers, avocados, tobacco and hemp. • The Aztec Indians used basic digging sticks to cultivate their crops because they had no plows, draft animals, or tools. • In spite of this important stuff, Aztec farmers produced more than enough food for themselves. • Trade was extremely important.

  12. Economics • The supplies that came into Tenochtitlán from distant parts of the empire expanded, If the tribes had been defeated or “conquered” they had to pay a yearly amount of goods, such as rubber, feathers, cacao, and gold and stones from the south. • This brought wealth into the Aztec capital.