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The War of 1812. What are some major events leading to the War of 1812?. U.S. shipping was being harassed, cargo was seized. Britain required licenses for ships bound for Europe France confiscated cargo from licensed ships Impressment of American sailors

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what are some major events leading to the war of 1812
What are some major events leading to the War of 1812?
  • U.S. shipping was being harassed, cargo was seized.
    • Britain required licenses for ships bound for Europe
    • France confiscated cargo from licensed ships
  • Impressment of American sailors
    • British Navy kidnapped sailors off American ships and had them join the British Navy
what are some major events leading to the war of 18121
What are some major events leading to the War of 1812?
  • Economic Diplomacy Fails
    • Embargo Act of 1807 halted all trade with Europe
    • Embargo was unpopular in port cities, especially in the North
farewell jefferson enter james madison
Farewell JeffersonEnter James Madison
  • Jefferson did not want to run for 3rdterm
  • Madison was Jefferson’s Secretary of State
    • Madison was an author of 30 of the 81 the Federalist Papers
    • Considered the most important contributor to the Constitution
    • Shortest President

Why was it odd that Jefferson chose Madison as his Secretary of State?

madison s role leading up to the war of 1812
Madison’s role leading up to the War of 1812?
  • Non-Intercourse Act
    • Forbade trade with France and Britain;
    • President could reopen trade

Do you think this would be successful?

  • War Hawks
    • Southern Congressmen favored war with Britain, even though it hurt the North

Why do you think the War Hawks want war?

b enefits of war with britain
Benefits of war with Britain?
  • Reopening of trade
  • National Pride
  • Stop the impressment of sailors
  • CANADA
d rawbacks to going to war
Drawbacks to going to war?
  • Not everyone wanted to go to war
  • Military was small
    • Army made up mostly of state militias; did not like to fight outside of their state
    • Navy was small - only 22 ships
  • Britain was a great military superpower and, on paper, could crush us like a bug
  • Could lose territory
native populations before the war
Native Populations Before the War
  • Natives could either become farmers and join White society or move west of the Mississippi
  • One Native American leader, Tecumseh, taught his followers to reject White culture and allied with the British
  • 1811: The Battle of Tippecanoe - U.S. forces attacked Tecumseh’s settlements, burning them to the ground.
declaration of war
Declaration of War
  • June, 1812: Madison asked Congress for declaration of war
  • Vote was split along regional lines
  • War started with invasion of Canada
war begins
War Begins!
  • August 1812: USS Constitution sank the British Guerriere
  • The naval war moved into the Great Lakes and the US wins the Battle of Lake Erie
  • Americans made several unsuccessful attempts at invading Canada
  • Tennessee militia leader Andrew Jackson led a force against the Creeks (Native tribe) at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend
    • Women, children, and warriors were massacred
the roof is on fire
The Roof is on Fire…
  • August 1814: British forces sailed into Chesapeake Bay, captured Washington D.C.
  • Burn the White House and the Capitol
  • Madison and Congress barely escape
  • Dolly Madison famously saves the portrait of George Washington
oh say can you see
Oh Say Can You See…
  • Unlike D.C., Baltimore was ready for the British
  • City militia inflicted heavy casualties on the British
  • After bombarding Fort McHenry on September 13, 1814, British abandon the attack
  • Francis Scott Key witnessed the bombardment and penned a poem which becomes the National Anthem.
treaty of ghent
Treaty of Ghent
  • Treaty was negotiated in Europe
  • Signed on Dec. 24, 1814 ending the war of 1812
  • The War ended in a stalemate, no one gained or lost any territory
  • The issue of impressment was not addressed, but faded on its own
battle of new orleans
Battle of New Orleans
  • Fought after the treaty was signed (but not ratified)
  • Pirates and frontiersman fought alongside U.S. troops
  • Made Andrew Jackson a national hero and household name
  • Ensured treaty ratification
if the war of 1812 ended in a tie why was it important
If the War of 1812 ended in a tie, why was it important?
  • Gave the United States a national identity
    • Able to hold their own against the British
    • Started thinking about continuing westward expansion
    • Ended bad feelings toward the British
  • Creates a hero in Andrew Jackson and the western frontiersmen