the war of 1812
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The War of 1812. Hitler. "Hence today I believe that I am acting in accordance with the will of the Almighty Creator: by defending myself against the Jew, I am fighting for the work of the Lord .“ ~Mein Kampf. Hitler. Hitler’s anti-Semitism grew out of his Christian education

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"Hence today I believe that I am acting in accordance with the will of the Almighty Creator: by defending myself against the Jew, I am fighting for the work of the Lord.“

~Mein Kampf

  • Hitler’s anti-Semitism grew out of his Christian education
  • Anti-semitism grew when Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire
  • During the 1st crusade, entire Jewish communities were forced to choose between baptism or death

~10,000 Jews slaughtered in 6 months

  • Over time, Jews were driven from Western Europe
    • Many settled in Poland and Russia
  • During the late 1800s the word “Anti-Semitism” was coined by Wilhelm Mahr to give the old hatred a modern and scientific appeal
  • About this same time, a new Jewish movement called Zionism started
    • Jews working towards an independent Jewish state in Palestine
  • Balfour Declaration occurred in which Britain declared its belief in the power of international Jews
  • Hitler mounted a powerful propaganda campaign
    • Blamed Jews for Germany’s economic problems
    • Blamed Jews for Bolshevism
    • Blamed Jews for worldwide threat of Communism
  • 1933 Germany withdrew from League of Nations
hitler begins expansion
Hitler Begins Expansion
  • Spring of 1940 turned attention to Western Europe
    • May 1940 Netherlands
    • June 1940 France
    • August 1940 Britain
      • Switched to daytime bombings of London
        • May 1941, nearly 44,000 civilians killed
    • June 1941
      • 1 million Soviet troops killed or wounded
      • 3.5 million Soviets taken prisoner
        • 90% died in captivity
fdr pleas for less civilian causalities
FDR pleas for less civilian causalities

“The ruthless bombing from the air of civilians in unfortified centers of population….has sickened the hearts of every civilized man and woman, and has profoundly shocked the conscience of humanity…I am therefore addressing this urgent appeal to every Government which may be engaged in hostilities publicly to affirm its determination that its armed forces shall in no event, and under no circumstances, undertake the bombardment from the air of civilian populations” FDR

war in the pacific
War in the Pacific

Racial equality clause

  • Japan proposed adding this clause to the League of Nations
  • It was rejected by US, Britain & Australia
  • Arrogance and racial discrimination towards the Japanese had plagued Japanese-Western relations since the forced opening of the country in the 1800s
    • Japanese Exclusion Act of 1924

1930s Japan

  • Military took complete control of govt.
  • Political enemies assassinated, communists persecuted
  • Censorship of media intensified
war in the pacific1
War in the Pacific
  • Japan’s influence over Manchuria China had increased since the end of the Russo-Japanese war (1904/05)
  • Chinese nationalists began to challenge Japan’s position in Manchuria
  • 1933 Japan withdrew from League of Nations
  • 1937 War began with Japanese invasion of China
    • Japan wanted coal & iron ore reserve in Manchuria
  • FDR took China’s side
    • American economic stake in China
    • Activities of American missionaries
war in the pacific2
War in the Pacific
  • American media reported widely on Japanese efforts to terrorize Shanghai’s residents
    • Japan captured the Chinese capital, Nanjing
    • Japanese troops took part in a rampage of murder, rape & looting against the civilian population
    • More than 200,000 Chinese were killed
    • City was burned to the ground
    • American press labeled it “Rape of Nanking”
war in the pacific3
War in the Pacific
  • 1940 Japan occupied French Indochina (Vietnam)
  • Joined the Axis Powers (Germany & Italy)
  • Intensified Japan’s conflict with US & Britain
    • Reacted in an oil boycott
    • Resulting oil shortages & failures to resolve problems diplomatically convinced Japan to start war with US & Great Britain
war in the pacific4
War in the Pacific
  • D-Day
    • Attack on Pearl Harbor
    • 12/7/1941
  • Although US military intelligence had predicted a Japanese offensive in Pacific, Japan did not officially declare war until after Pearl Harbor attack
  • Both US policymakers & the general public had assumed that America’s neutrality would not be violated
  • Japanese had now defined themselves in American eyes as an evil, treacherous enemy willing to defy accepted international standards
war in the pacific5
War in the Pacific
  • In the Philippines
    • American soldiers who surrendered treated mercilessly by their Japanese captors
    • Over 7000 Allied prisoners of war died during the Bataan Death March
    • Many felt that fierce Japanese tactics (similar to those of Germany) might overwhelm American efforts
    • The press, radio, and film typically depicted the Japanese as vicious & heartless
    • Newspaper political cartoons portrayed them as apes, monkeys & vermin