1920s Foreign policy • The Red Scare of 1919—"100% Americanism”—follows World War I. Americans want to let Europe deal with its own problems following the war. • Americans show an incredible indifference to the fate of Europe during the 1920s
1920s Foreign Policy • The U.S. follows foreign policy that is narrow, cautious, and self-centered. • No membership in the League of Nations • In July 1921 Congress passed a joint resolution that declared the war with Germany officially over. • The U.S. military is reduced to 118,00 by 1927.
1920s Foreign Policy • Anti-Japanese immigration policy; tight immigration laws a paradox considering number of immigrants already in U.S.
1920s Foreign Policy • Washington wants World War I debts paid. America had loaned Allies during and after war a total of $11billion. Great Britain proposes canceling reparations debts if U.S. will cancel Great Britain's $4 billion debt. U.S. refuses.
Dawes Plan • was an attempt in 1924 to solve the reparations problem, which had bedeviled international politics following World War I. • The Allies' occupation of the Ruhr industrial area contributed to the hyperinflation crisis in Germany. The plan provided for their leaving the Ruhr, and a staggered payment plan for Germany's payment of war reparations. Because the Plan resolved a serious international crisis, Dawes shared the Nobel Peace Prize in 1925 for his work.
1920s Foreign Policy • The Good Neighbor Policy. The U.S. has a history of intervention in Latin America going back to the time of Andrew Jackson (1830s). • Presidents Hoover and Roosevelt and many other Americans slowly recognize the basic unfairness of America’s Latin American policy.
1920s Foreign Policy • The United States also renounces the right to intervene in Cuban affairs by terminating the Platt Amendment. U.S. Senator Orville Hitchcock Platt
Washington Naval Conference • The Washington Naval Conference convened in November 1921. • Secy. of State Charles Evans Hughes proposed a 10 year holiday in the construction of capital ships—battleships and heavy cruisers—and he also recommended the scrapping of other ships.
Washington Naval Conference • A step toward arms control • The US and 8 other nations (Britain, Japan, France, Italy, China, Portugal, Belgium, The Netherlands—the Soviet Union was not invited) • A dangerous naval race began between the US and Japan: Japan was spending 1/3 of its total budget on naval construction.
Washington Naval Conference • The Five-Power naval treaty was signed in February, 1922, and was to remain in effect until 1936. The treaty placed a limitation on the numbers and sizes of major warships, although it did not affect smaller vessels such as destroyers, submarines and cruisers. • Established a ratio: 5 (Great Britain): 5 (United States): 3 (Japan): 1.75 (France): 1.75 (Italy).
Washington Naval Conference • Four Power Treaty: the US, British, Japanese and French agreed to respect each other’s Pacific possessions: status quo in the Pacific, another concession to the Japanese. • Nine Power Treaty: the 9 conferees reaffirmed the Open Door Policy in China, recognizing China’s sovereignty • No restrictions on small warships and no provisions for enforcement.
Kellogg-Briand Pact • Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928, signed by 62 nations: renounced war as a solution for international conflicts. • Frank B. Kellogg, Secy. of State under Coolidge, wins a Nobel Peace Prize. • Popular in the Senate, passed 85-1. • Lacked provisions for enforcement. Aristide Briand Frank Kellogg
Stimson Doctrine • U.S policy response (January 1932), to Japan and China, of non-recognition of territorial changes that were executed by force. • Named after Henry L. Stimson, Secretary of State under Hoover (1929–1933), the policy followed Japan's unilateral seizure of Manchuria in northeastern China.
Secy. of State Cordell Hull • The longest-serving Secretary of State, holding the position for 11 years (1933–1944) in the administration of FDR during much of World War II. • Hull received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1945 for his role in establishing the United Nations, and was referred to by President Roosevelt as the "Father of the United Nations".
Nye Committee 1934-1936 • The Nye Committee conducted 93 hearings and questioned more than 200 witnesses between 1934-36. The hearings covered four topics: • The munitions industry • Government contracts • War profits • The background leading up to U.S. entry into World War I. • The committee documented the huge profits that arms factories had made during the war.
Neutrality Acts • 1935: imposed a general embargo on trading in arms and war materials with all parties in a war. • 1936: It forbade all loans or credits to belligerents. • 1937: It included the provisions of the earlier laws but included a “cash and carry” provision for nonmilitary goods. • 1939: It allowed for arms trade with belligerent nations on a cash and carry basis, thus ending the arms embargo.
Lend Lease Act, March 1941 • H. R. 1776 • AN ACTFurther to promote the defense of the United States, and for other purposes.
Destroyers for Bases Deal • On September 2, 1940, as the Battle of Britain intensified, Secretary of State Cordell Hull arranged the transfer of 50 warships to the Royal Navy. In exchange, the U.S. was granted land in various British possessions for the establishment of naval or air bases, rent free: • Newfoundland • Eastern side of the Bahamas • Southern coast of Jamaica • Western coast of St. Lucia, • West coast of Trinidad • Antigua • British Guiana (present day Guyana)