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Max Weber 1864-1920

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Max Weber 1864-1920
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Max Weber 1864-1920

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  1. Max Weber1864-1920 Rationality and Organization

  2. Background • MaximilianKarl Emil "Max" Weber • Born in Erfurt, Germany (1864) • Well-to-do family • Eldest of eight children • Sickly child • Physical problems • Mental problems

  3. Family • His mother (Helene Fallenstein): • Calvinist • Very religious • Concerned with social issues • His father (Max Weber): • Politician • Lawyer • Self-centered and authoritarian

  4. Mr. and Mrs. Max Weber

  5. Family • Parents had marriage problems • Different beliefs and values • Max Weber and his brother Alfred became sociologists and economists.

  6. Max Weber • Weber Pronounced: “vay-bear” • Max, Alfred, and Karl -> (1879)

  7. Max Weber’s Sociology • Concerned with individuals, as well as social structure • Macro • Micro

  8. Max Weber: Sociology Comprehensive science of Social Action • Behavior versus Action • Behavior= Move, react, eat etc. • Action=Behavior + Meaning

  9. Different from Other Theorists Spencer: Evolution of society as analogous to an organism • Natural laws of society Durkheim: Society as an organism • Maintaining cohesionof social structures • Social Solidarity

  10. Different from Other Theorists Marx: Society influenced by economy • Conflict between social classes Malinowski: Society functions to meet needs of individuals • Holistic approach

  11. Max Weber: Social Action Weber’s primary focus: • Subjective meanings that humans attach to their actions and interactions • Within specific social contexts Behavior without meaning is not sociology

  12. Max Weber: Social Action Four Major Types of Social Action 1. Traditional Action • Guided by custom or habit • Action is simply "always done" • Example: Celebrating holidays

  13. Max Weber: Social Action 2. Emotional or Affective Action • Motivated by emotional state • Love, Anger, Happiness, Revenge • Examples: • Going to college because your boyfriend or girlfriendis attending that school • Hitting a person out of anger

  14. Max Weber: Social Action 3. Value-oriented Rational Action • Working toward a goal, which may not be rational • But is pursued through rational means • Values: Ethical, Religious, Philosophical • Not rationally "chosen“ • Example: Going to college because you value learning and knowledge

  15. Max Weber: Social Action 4. Instrumental Rational (Goal-oriented Rational Action) • Goals & means are rationally chosen • Example: • Earning a college degree in order to get a good paying job How to get rich https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yz81sLCy--c

  16. 3/24 Max Weber: Social Action • Primarily concerned with modern Western society • Behavior increasingly dominated by goal-oriented rationality • In the past: Motivated by tradition, affect, or value-oriented rationality

  17. Rationalization • Rational calculation, Efficiency, and Control (Ex. Bureaucracy) • Replaces: • Affective ties • Spirituality • Tradition

  18. Max Weber: Ideal Types An ideal type not meant to refer to “best” or to a “moral ideal” e.g., Ideal type brothel or Ideal type chapel • Analytical construct that provides a basic method for comparative study

  19. Max Weber: Ideal Types • Identifies “logically consistent” features of social institution • Compare “ideal type” to reality • Used to develop research hypotheses

  20. Ideal Type Bureaucracy http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YBCAlZPF0D0

  21. Legitimation & Authority • Legitimation-> Turns coercion into acceptable power • Authority = Legitimate Power • Three types of authority • 1. Legal-rational • 2. Traditional • 3. Charismatic

  22. Max Weber: Authority 1. Legal-rational authority • Based on impersonal rules • Rules are legally enacted or contractually established • Examples:Presidents, judges

  23. Max Weber: Authority 2. Traditional authority • Based on belief in tradition • Passed down generation to generation • Examples:Kings, Queens, Parents, Elders

  24. Max Weber: Authority 3. Charismatic authority • Allegiance to leader • Leader’s characteristics • Quality of individual's personality • Source of change • Examples:Martin Luther King Jr., Gandhi

  25. Max Weber: Bureaucracy • Formal organization of large-scale enterprises for example: • Government • Military • Economy • Religion • Education • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YBCAlZPF0D0

  26. Max Weber: Bureaucracy Ideal-type Bureaucracy: • Clearly defined division of labor • Rationality • Attention to implementing goals of organization • Impersonal application of rules • Routinization of tasks

  27. Max Weber: Bureaucracy Major advantage • Calculability of results Dysfunctions of bureaucracy • Depersonalization • Difficult to deal with individual cases • Personnel are replaceable • Information flows from top-down • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TypEb0tbFho • George Tooker paintings illustrate rationality and modernity

  28. Max Weber: Class, Status, and Party Method for Studying Social Stratification: Sources of Power • Social Class • “…property…and lack of property…” • Life chances • Socio-economic category • Lower class • Middle class • Upper class

  29. Sources of Power: Class, Status, & Party • Status • Prestige • Honor • Evaluations people make of one another • Ranking desired behavior & traits

  30. 2009

  31. Max Weber: Party • Association that attempts to influence social action • Religious • Political • Age-based • Race/Ethnicity • Lobbyists • Working toward a goal in a planned manner (i.e., rationally)

  32. Weber’s Contribution to Sociology • Stratification theory (class, status, party) • Bureaucracy & large scale organizations • Power & Authority • Sociology of law • Sociology of religion

  33. Weber’s Contribution to SociologyTheory and Methodology • “Verstehen”helps in understanding why certain behaviors occur • Social Action: Subjective meanings • Values: Role in relationships

  34. Weber’s Contribution to Sociology • Multi-causalityof Social Phenomena • Complete Objectivity is Impossible • Values & Value relevance

  35. Weber’s Contribution to Sociology • Max Weber had more powerful positive impact on a wide range of sociological theories than any other sociological theorist • Createdthe German Association for Sociology (1909) • Starting Point for Careers: • Karl Mannheim, Talcott Parsons, Robert Merton and C. Wright Mills