The First World War Do you think America should enter the war?
The First World War • Is it right for America to intervene in foreign conflicts? • When American lives are threatened, how should the government respond? • Should America go to war to make the world “safe for democracy”?
World War I Begins Main Idea As World War I intensified, the U.S. was forced to abandon its neutrality Why it Matters Now The U.S. remains involved in European and world affairs.
Causes of World War I • Many Americans wanted to stay out of war, but several factors made American neutrality difficult to maintain.
An Assassination Leads to War • “The powder keg of Europe”-Balkan Peninsula • Key Issues: • Russia wanted access to the Mediterranean Sea • Germany wanted a rail link to the Ottoman Empire • Austria-Hungary accused Serbia of subverting its rule over Bosnia.
June 1914-ArchdukeFranz Ferdinand, heir to the Austrian throne is assassinated Gavrilo Princip- member of the Black Hand; promoted Serbian nationalism. The alliance system pulled one nation after another into conflict. August 3, 1914- The Great War began. An Assassination Leads to War
The Fighting Starts • August 3, 1914- Germany invaded Belgium (Schlieffen Plan) • Plan called for a holding action against Russia, combined w/a quick drive through Belgium to Paris. • Once France had fallen, German armies would defeat Russia.
Fighting Starts • Allies couldn’t save Belgium and retreated to the Marne River in France. • Trench Warfare: 3 Main kinds of trenches • Front line • Support • Reserve • “No man’s land”- space between the barbed wire. • Horrific Battles • Battle of Somme(July 1, 1916)- 60,000 British casualties on the 1st day alone. 1.2 million in the end.
Americans Question Neutrality • 1914- Americans saw no reason to join a struggle 3,000 miles away. • Divided Loyalty • Many Americans were from somewhere in Europe • Some Americans felt closer to Great Britain because of ancestry. • Germany- “the bully of Europe”
Economic Ties with Allies • American trade with Britain & France doubled. • Allies flooded American manufacturers with orders for war supplies. • Trade with Germany dropped • By how much did total U.S. exports to Europe rise or fall between 1914 & 1917? • What trends does the graph show before the start of the war, and during the war?
The War Hits Home • Although the majority of Americans favored victory for the Allies rather than the Central Powers, they did not want to join the Allies’ fight. • Two reasons America joined the fighting: • Ensure payments of debts • Prevent the Germans from threatening U.S. shipping
The United States Declares War • After the election, Wilson tried to mediate between the warring alliances. • “Peace without Victory” • German Provocation • Jan. 31, 1917- Germany ordered to sink all ships in British waters • Zimmerman Telegram- letter from German foreign minister to the German Ambassador to Mexico. • America Acts • April 2, 1917- Congress passes the resolution a few day later to enter the war. • Make the world “Safe for Democracy”
World War I BeginsReview • What were the main reasons for U.S. involvement in the war? • Economic ties were stronger with Allies than they were with the Central Powers. Germany’s U-boat attacks and the Zimmerman Telegram. • Where did Germany begin its war offensive, and what happened there? • Germany invaded Belgium, creating a refugee crisis.
American Power Tips the Balance Main Idea The U.S. mobilized a large army and navy to help the Allies achieve victory. Why it Matters Today During WWI, the U.S. military evolved into the powerful fighting force that it remains today.
One American’s Story • Eddie Rickenbacker- famous pilot of WWI, was a well known racecar driver before the war.
America Mobilizes • The U.S. wasn’t prepared for war. Only 200,000 men where in service when war was declared.
Selective Service Act-1917 • No person liable to military service shall hereafter be permitted or allowed to furnish a substitute for such service; nor shall any substitute be received, enlisted, or enrolled in the military service of the United States; and no such person shall be permitted to escape such service or to be discharged therefrom prior to the expiration of his term of service by the payment of money or any other valuable thing whatsoever as consideration his release from military service or liability there to.
America Turns the Tide • U-boat attacks on merchant ships were a serious threat to the Allies. • American Vice Admiral William S.Sims- convinced the British to try the convoy system. • A heavy guard of destroyers would escort merchant ships across the Atlantic. • U.S. helped lay a 230 mile barrier of mines across the North Sea from Scotland to Norway.
America Turns the Tide • Fighting in Europe • Allies were demoralized • Americans brought freshness and enthusiasm
Fighting “Over There” • American Expeditionary Force (AEF) • Gen. John J. Pershing • “Doughboys”- American infantry men
The War Introduces New Hazards • The new weapons and tactics of WW I led to horrific injuries and hazards.
Meuse-Argonne Offensive • The Meuse-Argonne Offensive, also called the Battle of the Argonne Forest, was a part of the final Allied offensive of World War I (and known as the Grand Offensive) that stretched along the entire western front. • On September 26, the Americans - the first to move - began their strike towards Sedan in the south. • U.S. smashes the German will to continue a hopeless fight. The main US effort of the offensive took place in the Verdun Sector, immediately north and northwest of the town of Verdun, between September 26 - November 11, 1918. • The big September/October Allied breakthroughs (north, centre and south) across the length of the Hindenburg Line - including the Battle of the Argonne Forest - are now lumped together as part of what is generally remembered as the huge Hundred Days Offensive by the Allies.
American Troops Go on the Offensive • Russian pulls out in 1917, Germany shifted their armies to the western front. • Americans arrived just in time as the German army was just 50 miles from Paris.
Total Cost of WWI • Casualties and losses Military dead:5,525,000Military wounded: 12,831,500Military missing: 4,121,000...further details.Military dead:4,386,000Military wounded: 8,388,000Military missing: 3,629,000
Total Losses by Country • Britain : 750,000 soldiers killed; 1,500,000 woundedFrance : 1,400,000 soldiers killed; 2,500,000 woundedBelgium : 50,000 soldiers killedItaly : 600,000 soldiers killedRussia : 1,700,000 soldiers killedAmerica : 116,000 soldiers killed • Germany : 2,000,000 soldiers killedAustria-Hungary : 1,200,000 soldiers killedOttoman Empire : 325,000 soldiers killedBulgaria : 100,000 soldiers killed
American Power Tips the BalanceReview • How did the U.S. mobilize a strong military during WWI? • The Selective Service Act allowed the government to randomly select up to 3 million men for military service. • What new weapons made fighting in WWI deadlier than fighting previous wars? • Machine guns, poison gas, airplanes, tanks.
The War at Home Main Idea WWI spurred social, political, and economic change in the U.S. Why it Matters Now Such changes increased government powers and expanded economic opportunities
Congress Give Power to Wilson • The entire economy had to be refocused on the war effort. • Congress gave President Wilson direct control over much of the economy, including the power to fix prices and to regulate war related industries.
Congress Gives Power to Wilson • The main regulatory body was the War Industries Board. • It was established in 1917 and reorganized in 1918 under the leadership of Bernard M. Baruch. • WIB encouraged companies to use mass-production techniques to increase efficiency. • Production in the U.S. increased by 20%. • People saved to contribute to the war. • “Gasless Sundays”,”Lightless Nights” • Daylight saving time
War Economy • Wages increased during the war. • Union membership climbed during the war. • National Labor Board-1918 • “Work or Fight” • Food Administration • Conserve food • “Gospel of the clean plate” • “Victory Gardens”
Selling the War • Two major task government faced when they extended the economy: • Raising Money • Convincing public support for the war.
Attacks on Civil Liberties Increase • Wilson had fears of hysteria.
The War Encourages Social Change • African American lives were transformed.
The Influenza Pandemic of 1918 • The influenza pandemic of 1918-1919 killed more people than the Great War, known today as World War I (WWI), at somewhere between 20 and 40 million people. • 675,000 Americans died of influenza during the pandemic • It has been cited as the most devastating epidemic in recorded world history. More people died of influenza in a single year than in four-years of the Black Death Bubonic Plague from 1347 to 1351. • Known as "Spanish Flu" or "La Grippe" the influenza of 1918-1919 was a global disaster.
The War at HomeReview • What methods did the U.S. government use to sell the war to the nation? • They advertised and sold war bonds; the CPI used propaganda. • What events during the war undermined civil liberties? • Propaganda led to hatred and violations of civil liberties. The Espionage and Sedition Acts also violated civil liberties.
Wilson Fights for Peace Main Idea European leaders opposed most of Wilson’s peace plan, and the U.S. Senate failed to ratify the peace treaty. Why it Matters Today Many of the nationalist issues left unresolved after WWI continue to trouble the world today.
Wilson Presents His Plan • Wilson travels to Europe (Versailles) to work out details of lasting peace. • Wilson is treated like a hero in Europe.
Fourteen Points • January 18, 1918 Wilson delivers his plan for peace to Congress. • Point were divided into three groups: • 1st five dealt with the prevention of another war. • Next 8 dealt with boundary changes. • 14th point called for the creation of an international organization. League of Nations.
Debating the Treaty of Versailles • On June 28, 1919, the Big Four and leaders of defeated nations gathered at the Palace of Versailles to sign the peace treaty.
Wilson Refuses to Compromise • Despite his health, Wilson set out in September 1919 on an 8,000 mile tour. 34 speeches in 3 weeks. • October 2- Wilson has a stroke • Senate votes on the treaty. • Wilson refuses to compromise • U.S. signed a separate treaty with Germany in 1921, after Wilson was no longer president.
The Legacy of the War • Warren G. Harding called for a return to “normalcy” • Destruction in Europe damaged social and political system. • “The war to end all wars”
Wilson Fights for PeaceReview • What were the major effects of the Treaty of Versailles? • It created international problems that would eventually lead to WWII. It humiliated Germany, provoked Russia to reclaim territory, and ignored claims of colonized people. • How did Wilson’s support for the League of Nations stand in the way of Senate support for the Treaty of Versailles? • Many senators objected to the provision calling for the League, yet Wilson was unwilling to compromise on it.