Identify key military turning points of World War II. • Does this picture represent a turning point in American history? • Make a list of what all this picture represents.
Challenges to FDR’s Foreign Policy • Germany attacks! (led by Adolf Hitler) • Austria, Czechoslovakia, Poland, France • Italy attacks! (led by Benito Mussolini) • Ethiopia (eastern Africa) • Japan attacks! (led by Hideki Tojo) • China (Manchurian peninsula) • FDR believed American should help its allies, prevent totalitarian dictators from spreading their influence • NEUTRALITY ACTS OUTLAWED American sales of arms to nations at war (isolationism) • Why would America want to stay neutral?
Lend-Lease Act • 1941: Congress passes law to cancel the old “cash & carry” policy and strengthen the “arsenal of democracy” by SENDING WEAPONS to “any country whose defense was vital to the United States” • $50 billion worth of weapons • FDR’s Atlantic Charter agreement goes a step further to create the “ALLIES” (US & Britain) • How neutral does America look now?
Pearl Harbor • December 7, 1941 • 2,403 killed; 1,178 injured • Much of US Pacific navy fleet destroyed • FDR calls it “a date which will live in infamy” • 94% of Americans had been isolationists before the attack in Hawaii • After the attack, America changed its mind • FDR DECLARES WAR ON JAPAN (but has to help Britain with Germany first) • What does December 7th have in common with September 11th?
Mobilization for WWII • 5 million American volunteer • Another 10 million drafted (Selective Service) • 18 million working in war industries • Less than 25% hired African Americans • Weekly paychecks rose 35% • Unemployment falls to 1.2% • What did joining World War II do to the Great Depression, if unemployment dropped from 25% to 1.2%?
Rationing • Office of Price Administration (OPA) set limits on prices, keeping them managable (slow down the inflation!) • OPA also set up a system where households received rationing coupons (c-books) to be used for buying such scarce goods as meat, shoes, sugar, coffee, and gasoline. • Why would it be important to RATION things like sugar and gasoline during war?
War-time Conversion • War Production Board (WPB) said which industries would switch to wartime production • Mechanical pencils turned out bomb parts • Bedspread maker made mosquito netting. • Soft-drink company started filling explosives. • WPB also set a list of conserved materials • Iron, tin, paper, cooking fat • What may have Henry Ford’s company converted to during World War II?
A. Philip Randolph • July 1, 1944 Randolph called for African Americans to march at Washington DC under this banner: • “We Loyal Colored Americans Demand the Right to Work and Fight for Our Country.” • FDR backed down and issued an executive order making discrimination in defense industrial hiring illegal • Who does A. Philip Randolph remind you of? • Frederick Douglass? • WEB DuBois? • Martin Luther King, Jr.?
Japanese-American Internment • In 1942, FDR ordered removal of 110,000 Japanese-Americans to “relocation centers” (prison camp) • 2/3 were Nisei (born in US) • $400 million in possessions lost • Should this be illegal? Why or Why not? • In 1944, the Supreme Court said the camps were legal in the name of military necessity • Korematsu v. United States
Women in War Industries • 6 million women come to work (35% of work force) in order to keep the economy running • And women in war! • WAAC (Women’s Auxiliary Army Commission) never in combat positions • How have women’s roles and expectations evolved from (a) World War I, (b) the Roaring Twenties, (c) The Great Depression, and now (d) World War II?
Who is Theodore Geisel? • A clue… I would not like them here or there. I would not like them anywhere. I do not like green eggs and ham. I do not like them Sam I Am. - Dr. Seuss (T. Geisel) During World War II, Dr. Seuss was an active cartoonist/propagandist in support of the war.
Germany was building an empire in Europe
The US wanted to stay out of ww2 ISOLATIONISM
The US is all talk, no action! NEUTRALITY ACTS
By appeasing (letting Germany do whatever), the US looks weak!
If we don’t do something soon, Germany & Japan will come here and take over Buy BONDS to help support the war effort
The Lend-Lease Act was starting to get the US involved …but not all the way
The attacks at Pearl Harbor finally woke America up from its isolationist “nap”
War Mobilization Get involved!
The US needs to get serious Germany & Japan don’t fight fair
This won’t be a short war
Japanese-Americans weren’t be trusted Internment Camps are necessary