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Travel and Tourism Part 2 Chapter 9 Distribution Mix Indirect distribution channels Travel clubs Incentive travel planners Convention/meeting planners Corporate ravel managers Retail travel agents Tour wholesalers and operators Internet travel services Direct distribution to customers

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chapter 9

Chapter 9

Distribution Mix

indirect distribution channels
Indirect distribution channels
  • Travel clubs
  • Incentive travel planners
  • Convention/meeting planners
  • Corporate ravel managers
  • Retail travel agents
  • Tour wholesalers and operators
  • Internet travel services
direct distribution to customers
Direct distribution to customers
  • Lodging
  • Cruise lines
  • Attractions
  • Gaming facilities
  • Rental cars
  • Airlines/bus/rail
  • Restaurant/food service
channel integration
Channel integration
  • Vertical - ownership by one organization of all or part of tourism distribution channel; total control of information to consumer
  • Horizontal - ownership of similar businesses by one organization in the distribution channel; shared messages
tours and packages
Tours and packages
  • Escorted - tour leader/director accompanies tourists
  • Hosted - host meet tourists but does not accompany them
  • Packaged - provides transport and lodging but usually not host or leader
  • Independent - families/friends go together
tour marketing
Tour marketing
  • Slick brochures, videos
  • Trade print advertising, trade shows
  • Consumer broadcast and print
  • Direct response with 800, www address, fax
incentive travel planners
Incentive travel planners
  • Corporate motivation tool to increase performance
  • Client appreciation vehicle to retain business
  • Involves destination management companies or inbound tour operators
  • Driven by return on investment (ROI)
chapter 10

Chapter 10

Forces shaping tourism

culture and society
Culture and society

Cultures have shared values and attitudes

  • High context - nonverbal, implied messages
  • Low context - verbal, definitive statements
  • Individualistic - freedom, independence
  • Social - group identity, shared motivations
  • Task or time orientation
role of leisure time
Role of leisure time
  • Shorter workweek, longer weekends
  • More women and retired travelers
  • Higher disposable and discretionary income
  • Emerging youth camp/vacation trend
  • Increasing trips to distant family members
traveler types and preferences
Traveler types and preferences
  • Achievers travel for business; SocietallyConscious are self-reliant and price conscious
  • Other-directeds travel for show; Inner-directeds travel for self
  • Allocentrics want independent travel, places with few tourists; territory free, high energy
  • Psycocentrics want group travel, well-developed attractions; territory bound, low energy
chapter 11 travel motivations
Chapter 11: Travel Motivations

Maslow’s hierarchy for travel

  • Intellectual - learning and discovery
  • Social - friendship, esteem needs
  • Competence-mastery - challenge, competition
  • Stimulus-avoidance - solitude, stress relief
product vs consumer driven motivations the health spa
Product vs. consumer driven motivations - The Health Spa

product v


massages, food, luxurious surroundings


stress relief, diet, comfort


self-relaxation, inner peace ^


chapter 12 selecting a destination
Chapter 12: Selecting a Destination

Reality vs. perception

  • Company/place name and slogan
  • Distance
  • Self-image preservation
  • Competitive advantage
  • Expectations
chapter 13 travel purchase
Chapter 13:Travel Purchase
  • Communication stage - objective - measurement process
  • Decision / adoption process
  • Choice influencers
chapter 14

Chapter 14

Purposes of Travel

business travel market
Business travel market
  • Regular business traveler is a 40s male
  • Wants service, timeliness; is demanding
  • Seek value rather than economy
  • 5 segments (frequent, women, luxury, international, occupational)
  • Future factors: economic, regulatory, globalization, automation
business travel market19
Business travel market

2. Business meeting, conference attendees

  • Venue selection based on: non-smoking rooms, concierge, 24-hour room service, gift shop
  • Highest image cities: San Diego, San Francisco, New Orleans, DC, Chicago, Boston, San Antonio, Seattle, Atlanta
business travel market20
Business travel market

3. Incentive traveler is a high-achieving salesman

  • Incentive buyers criteria for selection are: budget, time of year, participant background, incentive history, accessibility, facilities, activities for participant and spouse (or companion)
pleasure and personal travel market segments
Pleasure and personal travel market segments

1. Get away/family travelers

  • Visit relatives, driving distance, kid friendly

2. Adventurous/educational

  • Seek new destinations, good accommodations, outdoor activity options

3. Gamblers/fun travelers

  • Prefer resorts and nightlife
pleasure travel markets
Pleasure travel markets
  • Family market - theme parks, beach
  • Group tours - multi-destinations
  • Gaming market - day-trippers and destination casinos
  • Senior travel market - escape/learn, retirees, active storytellers
  • Cruise market - enthusiastic/restless boomers, luxury, shoppers, explorers
chapter 15 geography of travel
Chapter 15: Geography of Travel
  • Travel flows: tourist generating regions, transit routs, tourist destination regions
  • Competitiveness: measures of destination attractiveness
  • Trends: travel farther from home, north/south, China world’s top destination
  • Cuba and outer space?
chapter 16 modes of travel
Chapter 16: Modes of Travel
  • Train - comfort, safety
  • Ship - luxury, leisure
  • Automobile - economy, control
  • Plane - speed, charter
  • Bus/motorcoach - low cost, convenient