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Travel and Tourism

Travel and Tourism. Part 2. Chapter 9. Distribution Mix. Indirect distribution channels. Travel clubs Incentive travel planners Convention/meeting planners Corporate ravel managers Retail travel agents Tour wholesalers and operators Internet travel services.

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Travel and Tourism

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  1. Travel and Tourism Part 2

  2. Chapter 9 Distribution Mix

  3. Indirect distribution channels • Travel clubs • Incentive travel planners • Convention/meeting planners • Corporate ravel managers • Retail travel agents • Tour wholesalers and operators • Internet travel services

  4. Direct distribution to customers • Lodging • Cruise lines • Attractions • Gaming facilities • Rental cars • Airlines/bus/rail • Restaurant/food service

  5. Channel integration • Vertical - ownership by one organization of all or part of tourism distribution channel; total control of information to consumer • Horizontal - ownership of similar businesses by one organization in the distribution channel; shared messages

  6. Tours and packages • Escorted - tour leader/director accompanies tourists • Hosted - host meet tourists but does not accompany them • Packaged - provides transport and lodging but usually not host or leader • Independent - families/friends go together

  7. Tour marketing • Slick brochures, videos • Trade print advertising, trade shows • Consumer broadcast and print • Direct response with 800, www address, fax

  8. Incentive travel planners • Corporate motivation tool to increase performance • Client appreciation vehicle to retain business • Involves destination management companies or inbound tour operators • Driven by return on investment (ROI)

  9. Chapter 10 Forces shaping tourism

  10. Culture and society Cultures have shared values and attitudes • High context - nonverbal, implied messages • Low context - verbal, definitive statements • Individualistic - freedom, independence • Social - group identity, shared motivations • Task or time orientation

  11. Role of leisure time • Shorter workweek, longer weekends • More women and retired travelers • Higher disposable and discretionary income • Emerging youth camp/vacation trend • Increasing trips to distant family members

  12. Traveler types and preferences • Achievers travel for business; SocietallyConscious are self-reliant and price conscious • Other-directeds travel for show; Inner-directeds travel for self • Allocentrics want independent travel, places with few tourists; territory free, high energy • Psycocentrics want group travel, well-developed attractions; territory bound, low energy

  13. Chapter 11: Travel Motivations Maslow’s hierarchy for travel • Intellectual - learning and discovery • Social - friendship, esteem needs • Competence-mastery - challenge, competition • Stimulus-avoidance - solitude, stress relief

  14. Product vs. consumer driven motivations - The Health Spa product v ATTRIBUTES massages, food, luxurious surroundings BENEFITS stress relief, diet, comfort VALUES self-relaxation, inner peace ^ consumer

  15. Chapter 12: Selecting a Destination Reality vs. perception • Company/place name and slogan • Distance • Self-image preservation • Competitive advantage • Expectations

  16. Chapter 13:Travel Purchase • Communication stage - objective - measurement process • Decision / adoption process • Choice influencers

  17. Chapter 14 Purposes of Travel

  18. Business travel market • Regular business traveler is a 40s male • Wants service, timeliness; is demanding • Seek value rather than economy • 5 segments (frequent, women, luxury, international, occupational) • Future factors: economic, regulatory, globalization, automation

  19. Business travel market 2. Business meeting, conference attendees • Venue selection based on: non-smoking rooms, concierge, 24-hour room service, gift shop • Highest image cities: San Diego, San Francisco, New Orleans, DC, Chicago, Boston, San Antonio, Seattle, Atlanta

  20. Business travel market 3. Incentive traveler is a high-achieving salesman • Incentive buyers criteria for selection are: budget, time of year, participant background, incentive history, accessibility, facilities, activities for participant and spouse (or companion)

  21. Pleasure and personal travel market segments 1. Get away/family travelers • Visit relatives, driving distance, kid friendly 2. Adventurous/educational • Seek new destinations, good accommodations, outdoor activity options 3. Gamblers/fun travelers • Prefer resorts and nightlife

  22. Pleasure travel markets • Family market - theme parks, beach • Group tours - multi-destinations • Gaming market - day-trippers and destination casinos • Senior travel market - escape/learn, retirees, active storytellers • Cruise market - enthusiastic/restless boomers, luxury, shoppers, explorers

  23. Chapter 15: Geography of Travel • Travel flows: tourist generating regions, transit routs, tourist destination regions • Competitiveness: measures of destination attractiveness • Trends: travel farther from home, north/south, China world’s top destination • Cuba and outer space?

  24. Chapter 16: Modes of Travel • Train - comfort, safety • Ship - luxury, leisure • Automobile - economy, control • Plane - speed, charter • Bus/motorcoach - low cost, convenient

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