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Travel and Tourism Definitions and Concepts Travel Destination orientation Purposeful Direct Tourism Leisure pursuit Acquisition activity Meandering Definitions Tourism Cycle Leave home Use transportation to travel away Arrive or journey in a new place or space

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travel and tourism

Travel and Tourism

Definitions and Concepts


Destination orientation




Leisure pursuit

Acquisition activity


tourism cycle
Tourism Cycle
  • Leave home
  • Use transportation to travel away
  • Arrive or journey in a new place or space
  • Acquire mementos and souvenirs
  • Use transportation to travel back
  • Arrive back home
  • Use mementos to reconstruct trip
advancements in travel
Advancements in Travel
  • A system of currency exchange
  • Roman coins
  • Greek games
  • Common language (Latin)
  • Rural to urban movement
  • Grand Tour (16th century)
  • Spa and seaside resort (19th century)
more travel advancements
More travel advancements
  • Holidays (from holy days) for workers (UK)
  • Railway opens US
  • Wealthy class emerges to tour
  • Vacations for middle classes
  • Mass tourism after WWII
  • Travel democratized
  • Hedonic travel prevails
21st century tourism
Old Style

East-West flow

One long vacation

European destinations

Natural environments

Mass markets

New Style

North-South flow

Many short breaks

Latin and Asian destinations

Artificial environments

Specialty markets

21st Century Tourism
chapter 1

Chapter 1

Attractions and Services for the Traveler and Tourist

attraction destinations

Extended time

Breadth of appeal

Market orientation (Disney-amusement)

Site orientation (Aspen-sport)


Short time; stopover

Narrow focus (MOMA - education)

Accessible to transport

Roadside attractions

Attraction Destinations
  • Lodging
  • Food and beverage
  • Support Industries (goods, services, activities)
  • Proximity to transportation
  • Hospitality programs
  • Integral part of economic structure of destination
  • Serve as tangible symbols to commemorate travel experiences
  • Act as ‘site markers’ of visitation
  • Embody memories and recollections of travel
function of souvenirs
Function of souvenirs
  • Pictorial images (photos, postcards, books)
  • Pieces-of-the-rock (collected from nature)
  • Symbolic shorthand (miniatures)
  • Markers (inscribed with location; t-shirt)
  • Local products (food, crafts, art)
souvenir meanings
Souvenir meanings
  • Niave travelers assign public meanings to souvenirs that are specific to the locale and are representations of some geographic space; conspicuous authenticity
  • Experienced travelers see souvenirs as private representations of hedonics (pleasures) that relate to friends, family or other experiences; abstract authenticity
chapter 2

Chapter 2

Tourism impacts on the economy, society, culture and environment

economic development economic impact
Economic Development & Economic Impact
  • Opportunity for growth to developing areas
  • Invisible exports from consumer collection
  • Increasing foreign exchange earnings - leakage expenditures
  • Increasing income - visitor spending, business expenditures
  • Increasing employment - direct/indirect
societal and cultural impacts
Societal and Cultural Impacts
  • Meet new people with different customs
  • Confrontation of new values, lifestyles, languages, wealth
  • Hosts - residents of tourist site
  • Guests - visitors to tourist site
  • Disease transmission
  • Imperialism amd involution
sustainable tourism
Sustainable Tourism

Improves quality of life for host community

Provides high quality experience for visitor

  • Sensitive to ecology and biology of region
  • Strengthens community identity
  • Compatible with local values
  • Manages tourism development resources
chapter 3 role of government and world organizations
Chapter 3: Role of government and world organizations
  • Policy development and planning
  • Regulations
  • Marketing and research, education
  • World Tourism Organization
  • World Travel & Tourism Council
  • Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
chapter 4 tourism regulation
Chapter 4: Tourism Regulation
  • Multilateral agreements - international air travel rights and goals, GATT, UNESCO
  • Bilateral agreements - open skies, hotel classification, EEC, NAFTA
  • Destination regulation - tours, food service, transportation, accommodations standards
  • Tour operator regulations
chapter 5 tourism planning
Chapter 5: Tourism Planning
  • Destination lifecycle
  • Background analysis - SWOT
  • Market research and activity analysis
  • Position statement against competition
  • Goal and objective setting, strategy selection
  • Plan development, implementation, monitoring and evaluation
chapter 6 tourism development
Chapter 6: Tourism Development

Feasibility studies

  • Site analysis - investors/lenders, market & physical characteristics
  • Market analysis - questionnaires, focus groups, observations
  • Economic analysis - expenses, revenues, cash flow, cost/benefit
chapter 7

Chapter 7

Tourism Marketing

marketing segment criteria
Marketing Segment Criteria
  • Measurable number of visitors
  • Accessible through media or promotion
  • Sufficient numbers to justify effort
  • Unique characteristics
  • Sustainability
  • Competitive advantage
  • Similar characteristics or motivations
  • Demographic and socioeconomic
  • Geographic
  • Purpose of trip
  • Behavioral
  • Psychographic
  • Product-related
  • Channel of distribution
  • Determine how tourists perceive position
  • Evaluate whether to establish, change or reinforce that position
  • Objective positioning - match site attributes with tourist needs
  • Subjective positioning - correct misperceptions; repositioning
positioning approaches
Positioning approaches
  • Product features (Swiss Alps)
  • Benefits, problem solution, needs (LaCosta’s full service spa)
  • Special usage occasion (Honeymoon at Madonna Inn)
  • User category (Avis Number 2)
  • Against a competitor (Don’t take Amex)
  • Product class (Love Boat)
marketing planning
Marketing planning
  • Situation analysis - economy, consumers, competition, trends, SWOT
  • Goals- segments, position, objectives and strategies
  • Marketing mix - integrated brand communication
  • Implementation - tracking and modification
  • Evaluation - effectiveness, accountability
marketing mix 8ps
Marketing mix - 8Ps
  • Product - transport, lodging, souvenirs
  • Price - lifecycle, competition, TM
  • Promotion - advertising, PR, sales, publicity
  • Place - channel, intermediaries
  • Packaging - all inclusive trips
  • Programming - activities, events
  • People - human resources
  • Partnership - coop ads and packaging
chapter 8

Chapter 8

Tourism Promotional Communication

promotional objectives
Promotional objectives
  • Initiate new travel behavior with information and incentives
  • Change existing travel attitudes through persuasion
  • Reinforcing desirable travel behavior with reminders
promotional program development
Promotional program development
  • Select target market and market segments
  • Set objectives based on consumer research and a results orientation
  • Establish a task-objective based budget
  • Determine a message to support product/service position
  • Create message format and appeal
promotion program continued
Promotion program continued

6. Select promotional mix elements that adhere to budget for entire market

7. Determine appropriate media to reach each target segment

8. Measure and evaluate promotional effectiveness

building relationships
Building relationships
  • Data base marketing for direct mail
  • WWW electronic brochures
  • Telemarketing or 800 response
  • Event marketing
  • Merchandising
brand image and brand equity
Brand image and brand equity
  • Image created in traveler’s mind from promotional messages
  • Brand equity created through experience with product or service
  • Branding is relationship-oriented
  • Brands must be managed to insure equity building process is successful
building partnerships
Building partnerships
  • Foster marketing and promotional partnerships with transportation, suppliers, business in host and originating countries
  • Link brand to companion brand with similar image or market segment
  • Use cooperative efforts to share costs for extended reach and impressions