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Travel and Tourism

Travel and Tourism Definitions and Concepts Travel Destination orientation Purposeful Direct Tourism Leisure pursuit Acquisition activity Meandering Definitions Tourism Cycle Leave home Use transportation to travel away Arrive or journey in a new place or space

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Travel and Tourism

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  1. Travel and Tourism Definitions and Concepts

  2. Travel Destination orientation Purposeful Direct Tourism Leisure pursuit Acquisition activity Meandering Definitions

  3. Tourism Cycle • Leave home • Use transportation to travel away • Arrive or journey in a new place or space • Acquire mementos and souvenirs • Use transportation to travel back • Arrive back home • Use mementos to reconstruct trip

  4. Advancements in Travel • A system of currency exchange • Roman coins • Greek games • Common language (Latin) • Rural to urban movement • Grand Tour (16th century) • Spa and seaside resort (19th century)

  5. More travel advancements • Holidays (from holy days) for workers (UK) • Railway opens US • Wealthy class emerges to tour • Vacations for middle classes • Mass tourism after WWII • Travel democratized • Hedonic travel prevails

  6. Old Style East-West flow One long vacation European destinations Natural environments Mass markets New Style North-South flow Many short breaks Latin and Asian destinations Artificial environments Specialty markets 21st Century Tourism

  7. Chapter 1 Attractions and Services for the Traveler and Tourist

  8. PRIMARY Extended time Breadth of appeal Market orientation (Disney-amusement) Site orientation (Aspen-sport) SECONDARY Short time; stopover Narrow focus (MOMA - education) Accessible to transport Roadside attractions Attraction Destinations

  9. Facilities • Lodging • Food and beverage • Support Industries (goods, services, activities) • Proximity to transportation • Hospitality programs

  10. Souvenirs • Integral part of economic structure of destination • Serve as tangible symbols to commemorate travel experiences • Act as ‘site markers’ of visitation • Embody memories and recollections of travel

  11. Function of souvenirs • Pictorial images (photos, postcards, books) • Pieces-of-the-rock (collected from nature) • Symbolic shorthand (miniatures) • Markers (inscribed with location; t-shirt) • Local products (food, crafts, art)

  12. Souvenir meanings • Niave travelers assign public meanings to souvenirs that are specific to the locale and are representations of some geographic space; conspicuous authenticity • Experienced travelers see souvenirs as private representations of hedonics (pleasures) that relate to friends, family or other experiences; abstract authenticity

  13. Chapter 2 Tourism impacts on the economy, society, culture and environment

  14. Economic Development & Economic Impact • Opportunity for growth to developing areas • Invisible exports from consumer collection • Increasing foreign exchange earnings - leakage expenditures • Increasing income - visitor spending, business expenditures • Increasing employment - direct/indirect

  15. Societal and Cultural Impacts • Meet new people with different customs • Confrontation of new values, lifestyles, languages, wealth • Hosts - residents of tourist site • Guests - visitors to tourist site • Disease transmission • Imperialism amd involution

  16. Sustainable Tourism Improves quality of life for host community Provides high quality experience for visitor • Sensitive to ecology and biology of region • Strengthens community identity • Compatible with local values • Manages tourism development resources

  17. Chapter 3: Role of government and world organizations • Policy development and planning • Regulations • Marketing and research, education • World Tourism Organization • World Travel & Tourism Council • Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation

  18. Chapter 4: Tourism Regulation • Multilateral agreements - international air travel rights and goals, GATT, UNESCO • Bilateral agreements - open skies, hotel classification, EEC, NAFTA • Destination regulation - tours, food service, transportation, accommodations standards • Tour operator regulations

  19. Chapter 5: Tourism Planning • Destination lifecycle • Background analysis - SWOT • Market research and activity analysis • Position statement against competition • Goal and objective setting, strategy selection • Plan development, implementation, monitoring and evaluation

  20. Chapter 6: Tourism Development Feasibility studies • Site analysis - investors/lenders, market & physical characteristics • Market analysis - questionnaires, focus groups, observations • Economic analysis - expenses, revenues, cash flow, cost/benefit

  21. Chapter 7 Tourism Marketing

  22. Marketing Segment Criteria • Measurable number of visitors • Accessible through media or promotion • Sufficient numbers to justify effort • Unique characteristics • Sustainability • Competitive advantage • Similar characteristics or motivations

  23. Segmentation • Demographic and socioeconomic • Geographic • Purpose of trip • Behavioral • Psychographic • Product-related • Channel of distribution

  24. Positioning • Determine how tourists perceive position • Evaluate whether to establish, change or reinforce that position • Objective positioning - match site attributes with tourist needs • Subjective positioning - correct misperceptions; repositioning

  25. Positioning approaches • Product features (Swiss Alps) • Benefits, problem solution, needs (LaCosta’s full service spa) • Special usage occasion (Honeymoon at Madonna Inn) • User category (Avis Number 2) • Against a competitor (Don’t take Amex) • Product class (Love Boat)

  26. Marketing planning • Situation analysis - economy, consumers, competition, trends, SWOT • Goals- segments, position, objectives and strategies • Marketing mix - integrated brand communication • Implementation - tracking and modification • Evaluation - effectiveness, accountability

  27. Marketing mix - 8Ps • Product - transport, lodging, souvenirs • Price - lifecycle, competition, TM • Promotion - advertising, PR, sales, publicity • Place - channel, intermediaries • Packaging - all inclusive trips • Programming - activities, events • People - human resources • Partnership - coop ads and packaging

  28. Chapter 8 Tourism Promotional Communication

  29. Promotional objectives • Initiate new travel behavior with information and incentives • Change existing travel attitudes through persuasion • Reinforcing desirable travel behavior with reminders

  30. Promotional program development • Select target market and market segments • Set objectives based on consumer research and a results orientation • Establish a task-objective based budget • Determine a message to support product/service position • Create message format and appeal

  31. Promotion program continued 6. Select promotional mix elements that adhere to budget for entire market 7. Determine appropriate media to reach each target segment 8. Measure and evaluate promotional effectiveness

  32. Building relationships • Data base marketing for direct mail • WWW electronic brochures • Telemarketing or 800 response • Event marketing • Merchandising

  33. Brand image and brand equity • Image created in traveler’s mind from promotional messages • Brand equity created through experience with product or service • Branding is relationship-oriented • Brands must be managed to insure equity building process is successful

  34. Building partnerships • Foster marketing and promotional partnerships with transportation, suppliers, business in host and originating countries • Link brand to companion brand with similar image or market segment • Use cooperative efforts to share costs for extended reach and impressions

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