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Sudan and the End of Empire; Legacies of Empire

Sudan and the End of Empire; Legacies of Empire

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Sudan and the End of Empire; Legacies of Empire

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  1. Sudan and the End of Empire;Legacies of Empire HIST 4339

  2. Final Exam • Sat, 7:30-10:00pm, CLUB 4 • Exam will reward familiarity with readings • 4 IDs (out of 8 choices) • One essay (2/3 choices)

  3. Outline • Sudanese nationalism and independence • Suez crisis • Legacies of empire

  4. Southern Policy • Separation of south from north • Encouragement of development of southern culture Northern and Southern Sudan (Salih 419)

  5. Nuba Policy • Extension of Southern Policy • British politicization and alteration of existing divisions and communities Northern and Southern Sudan (Salih 419)

  6. Sudanese Nationalism • 1938: establishment of “Graduates’ General Congress” (educated Sudanese) • 1942: Sudanese leaders demand “right of self-determination” at WWII end • 1946: draft treaty renegotiating Sudan’s status leaves all parties unhappy

  7. Draft Treaty (1946) “. . . will have for its essential objective to secure the well-being of the Sudan . . . the development of self-government, and consequently the right to choose the future status of the Sudan. Until . . . full common agreement . . . the Agreement of 1899 will continue and Article 11 of the Treaty of 1936 . . . will remain in force.”

  8. Sudanese Nationalism • 1952: military revolution in Egypt, Egyptian call for Sudanese independence • 1953: British agree to Egyptian proposal

  9. Sudanese Independence • 1955: Sudanese demand that Britain withdraw troops • Dec 1955: Sudanese declaration of independence • 1 Jan 1956: official transfer of power in Khartoum

  10. Egypt: Suez Crisis • Egyptian leader Col. Gamal Abdul Nasser accepts Soviet military aid • July 1956: Nasser’s nationalization of Suez canal

  11. Egypt: Suez Crisis • Nov 1956: Britain’s disastrous military operation to regain canal • Britain no longer a world power

  12. Legacies of Empire:Bengal Borderlands • Little immediate impact • Complicated traditional social and economic patterns • Also created new opportunities and new forms of work

  13. Legacies of Empire:Kuwait-Iraq • 1922: Percy Cox draws Saudi boundaries • 1923: Cox defines Kuwait-Iraq boundary (vaguely) • Tension over territory with potential for oil <www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/cia05/kuwait_sm05.gif>

  14. Legacies of Empire: Sudan • North-South civil war: 1.5 million dead • Darfur genocide: 300,000 dead, 4m refugees • 9 Jul 2011: South Sudan secession

  15. Conclusions • Imperial policies still affect today’s world • Territorial and ethnic conflicts

  16. Conclusions • Political achievements of anti-colonial leaders • Cultural achievements (Rushdie, Achebe, Ngugi)