The Roman Empire: Early, High & Late Architecture
Understand the role of the Colosseum and amphitheater in Roman life. Understand the development of Roman art and architecture as the empire expands and develops. The Early Empire (27 B.C. – 98 C.E.)
Aerial view of the Colosseum* (Flavian Amphitheater), Rome, Italy, ca. 70–80 CE.-oval shaped 615’ x 510’-outer wall=159’ H-top wall supported an awning for shade-
engaged columns From bottom to top, different orders of arch. From basic to complex (Hellenistic influence): Tuscan—plain order on ground level Ionic—2nd Corinthian—3rd Corinthian pilasters—4th Attic story has small, square windows that alternate with bronze cartouches (shield shaped ornaments) Colosseum—most of it was dismantled during Middle Ages for marble, metal fittings and materials for churches
“The arch” begins during Flavian dynasty as part architecture, part sculpture celebrating a formal victory Commissioned by emperor Domitian to honor his brother, Titus Made of concrete but faced with marble Originally the base for a statue of a 4 horse chariot and driver Columns are in the Composite order THE ARCH OF TITUS
Spoils of Jerusalem*, relief panel from the Arch of Titus, Rome, Italy, after 81 CE. Marble, 7’ 10” high.
Titus captured Jerusalem where Jews were revolting Romans destroyed the Second Temple in Jerusalem, carried off its sacred treasures and displayed them in a triumphal procession in Rome Used relief to show sense of space
Triumph of Titus, relief panel from the Arch of Titus, Rome, Italy, after 81 CE. Marble, 7’ 10” high.
Understand the political nature of Roman art and architecture, especially as it communicates ideas of power for the emperor and empire. Examine the architectural development of the Roman forum, the markets, the triumphal arches and, in particular, the Pantheon. High Empire ( 96 – 192 C.E.)
Understand the political nature of Roman art and architecture, especially as it communicates ideas of power for the emperor and empire. Examine artistic development and formal changes, especially issues of space and narration in the Column of Trajan. Trajan chooses Apollodorus of Damascus to redesign the Forum (Rome’s city center) Art under Trajan in Spain, Africa, Italy
1 3 2 4 3 5 6 Figure 10-43 APOLLODORUS OF DAMASCUS, Forum of Trajan, Rome, Italy, dedicated 112 CE. (James E. Packer and John Burge). 1) Temple of Trajan, 2) Column of Trajan, 3) libraries, 4) Basilica Ulpia, 5) forum, 6) equestrian statue of Trajan.
Detail, Colum of Trajan* -shows them crossing the Danube and building a fort -propaganda
Like a giant scroll Refined, pictoral narrative of Dacian campaigns 102-103 and 105-106 C.E. 2,500 individual figures with a recurring Trajan
Examine the architectural development of the Roman forum, the markets, the triumphal arches and, in particular, the Pantheon. Explore the luxuries of Hadrian Architecture of the High Empire
Restored cutaway view (left) and lateral section (right) of the Pantheon, Rome, Italy, 118–125 CE.
Understand the cultural influences that bring about changes in Roman art and architecture in the Late Empire period. Relate aspects of Roman culture and their influence in today's life. Understand how power, order and lost individuality are expressed in the art of the Late Empire. Examine the changes brought about in the art and architecture in the time of Constantine. Consider the Roman Empire as a bridge between the ancient and medieval and modern worlds. Late Empire (192-337 C.E.)
HUGE arch next to Coloseum, dwarfs the Arch of Titus 3 barrel vaulted arch Abstract style is removed from realism of before Constantine=bridge to the art of the Middle Ages
What are some of the unique elements of Roman art and architecture that distinguish it from Greek and other art of the same time period? • In what ways does Roman art and architecture incorporate the arts of conquered peoples from England to Egypt? Discussion Questions