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Modern Europe II

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  1. Modern Europe II Unit 4 – European Politics and Economy, 1871-1914

  2. Advance of Democracy • Characteristics of 1871-1914 Europe • Expansive material and industrial growth • Domestic stability • International peace • New wave of imperialism • Expansion of global economy • Period after 1871 was marked by stability • Period of constitutional and representative governments • Extension of voting rights to working class • Extension of self-government (democracy) • Growth of the welfare state to counteract growth of socialism

  3. Third French Republic • France had troubles establishing a democratic republic • The Second Empire fell after its surrender to Prussia in January 1871 • New government was to be established with universal male suffrage • Conservative provisional government moved to Versailles • Elections of 1871 • Monarchists won the majority in the National Assembly • Divided mainly between two groups: Legitimists and Orléanists • Legitimists wanted Bourbon dynasty (Charles X) reinstated • Orléanists wanted the Orléans dynasty (Louis-Philippe) • Only 150 republicans were elected as many French distrusted them as too radical

  4. Makeup of the 1871 National Assembly

  5. Third French Republic • Parisian working class refused to accept the new government • Were the ones who sacrificed the most during the war and the subsequent siege of Paris • Paris refused to surrender to the Germans • Paris Commune (March 18 – May 28, 1871) • Paris proclaimed itself to be the true government of France • Set up a government called the Paris Commune • Pitted the nation against the radical city of Paris • Policies were similar to the Jacobins • Very anti-bourgeoisie and upper class • Contained some socialists but mainly republicans

  6. Paris Commune Barricade (March 18, 1871)

  7. Third French Republic • Government sends troops to Paris in March 1871 • Barricades and street fighting • Troops were able to take the city in May • In total, over 25,000 died, most of them executed • Over 30,000 were arrested and 7,500 deported to New Caledonia • What form should the new government take? • Monarchists had the majority but could not agree • Legitimists and Orléanists ended up cancelling each other out • Third Republic continued to exist • Worked different constitutional plans

  8. Third French Republic • French Constitutional Laws of 1875 • Formally established a republic headed by a president • Senate elected by an indirect system • Chamber of Deputies elected by universal male suffrage • Included a Council of Ministers headed by a Premier • Passed by one vote • Over the next few years the political roles would become more defined • President essentially became a ceremonial figure • True power rested in the hands of the Premier

  9. Third French Republic • Stable government? • Became difficult to form majority in the parliament due to dozens of political parties • Control formed through alliances or blocs • Neither President nor Premier could dissolve the Chamber to hold new elections • Kept the government stable for the rest of 19th century • Troubles of the Third Republic • Many were fearful of the concept of a republic • Rise in anti-Semitism • Numerous political scandals in the 1880s and 1890s

  10. Édouard Drumont • (1844-1917)

  11. Rise of Anti-Semitism • French Anti-Semitism • Rose out of the defeat in 1870 • Right-wing movement that was nationalist, anti-liberal, and antiparliamentary • Nationalism was no longer associated with the left and was now linked to xenophobia • ÉdouardDrumont (1844–1917) • Successful anti-Semitic journalist • Attributed all of France’s problems to a Jewish conspiracy • Merged three strands of anti-Semitism • Christian – “Jews as Christ killers” • Economic – Rothschild as representative of all Jews • Racial thinking - Jews as an inferior race

  12. Rise of Anti-Semitism • Drumont helped to spread an ideology of hatred • Claimed that Jews in the army subverted national purpose • Mass culture corrupted French culture • “Greedy Jewish socialists and trade unionists” preyed on the peasants and small shopkeepers • La France Juive (Jewish France, 1886) • Called for the exclusion of Jews from French society • Sold 100,000 copies in the first two months • La Libre Parole (Free Speech) • Very popular newspaper • Founded through his Anti-Semitic League

  13. Alfred Dreyfus • (1859-1935)

  14. Dreyfus Affair • Alfred Dreyfus (1859-1935) • Jewish captain in the French army • Officers accused him of selling secrets to the Germans • Was convicted in November 1894 • Sentenced to life imprisonment in the Devil’s Island penal colony in French Guiana • The Affair • In 1896, evidence was found that identified another officer as the true spy • Documents used against Dreyfus were found to be forgeries • However, Dreyfus was not exonerated

  15. Dreyfus Affair • Émile Zola (1840–1902) backed Dreyfus • Wrote an open letter in 1898 accusing the government of being anti-Semitic and unjust • Described the lack of evidence in the letter • Was published on the front page of L'Aurore • Zola was found guilty of libel and was forced to leave France • Dreyfus eventually pardoned by the president in 1899 • Cleared of all guilt in 1906 by the supreme court • Reinstated into the army • Republican reaction against the church • Saw both the church and army as hostile to the state • Passed laws (1901-1905) separating church and state

  16. Dreyfus’ hut on Guiana

  17. Strengths and Weaknesses • Strengths of the Third French Republic • Garnered the loyalty of most of the French population • Showed that democratic republicanism can work • Most classes lived in economic comfort • Weaknesses • Still lagged behind in industry compared to Britain and Germany • Excessive fragmentation of political parties • More than 50 ministries from 1871-1914 • Working class was still unhappy • Continued rise of socialism

  18. Victoria • (1837-1901)

  19. British Constitutional Monarchy • Characteristics of Britain under Victoria (1837-1901) • Era of expanding industry and material progress • Numerous literary accomplishments • Political stability • Two major political parties: Liberals and Conservatives • Victoria in seclusion • In 1861, Prince Consort Albert died of typhoid fever • Victoria went into a period of seclusion • This seclusion helped to bolster the republican movement inside of England

  20. British Constitutional Monarchy • Parties alternated control during this period • Conservatives had the support of the landed aristocracy • Liberals had the support of industrial and commercial interests • Both sought the support of the working class • Increasing suffrage • Second Reform Bill (1867) extended suffrage to 1/3 male population • In 1884, another law extended it to ¾ of the male population • Universal male suffrage and limited women’s suffrage were enacted in 1918

  21. William E. Gladstone • Prime Minister of Britain • (1868-1885)

  22. British Constitutional Monarchy • William E. Gladstone (1809-1898) • Liberal Prime Minister four times during the Victorian Era • Gladstone’s First ministry (1868-1874) • Cardwell Reforms (1869) terminated the sale and purchase of army commissions • Forster's Education Act (1870) set framework for public schools for children 5-12 • University Test Act (1871) abolished religious tests for Cambridge and Oxford • Ballot Act (1872) introduced the use of secret ballot • Formally legalized labor unions

  23. British Constitutional Monarchy • Benjamin Disraeli (1804-1888) • Conservative who held position of Prime Minister twice • Second Disraeli Ministry (1874-1880) • Supported laissez-faire policies • Public Health Act (1875) regulated public sanitation to stop the spread of diseases such as cholera and typhus • Regulated workplace safety in the mines • Allowed for peaceful picketing • Gladstone’s Second Ministry (1880-1885) • Granted a form of workman’s compensation • Included calls for shorter work days

  24. Benjamin Disraeli • Prime Minister • (1874-1880)

  25. British Politics after 1900 • Independent Labour Party (1901) • Labor emerged as a third political party • Called for more protective measures for the working class • Changes to the Liberal Party • Changed from laissez-faire policies to more government regulation • Focused more on social legislation to help the working poor • Liberal welfare reforms (1906-1914) • Done during the ministry of Herbert Asquith (1906-1916) • Illustrated the shift to more progressive liberalism

  26. British Politics after 1900 • Reforms included: • New forms of insurance (e.g., unemployment, sickness, accident) • Minimum wage laws • Removing restrictions on strikes and picketing • People’s Budget of 1909 • Pushed through by Chancellor of the Exchequer Lloyd George • Designed to help pay new social reforms • Called for progressive income and inheritance taxes • Aimed primarily at the landed aristocracy • Met tough resistance in both houses

  27. British Politics after 1900 • Parliament Act of 1911 • Removed the right of the House of Lords to veto any economic matters • Put in a two-year delaying veto for other legislation • Liberals also worked on getting salaries for House of Commons • Hoped it would get working class to run for seats • However, Liberals were showing signs of collapse • Wages were starting to fall after 1900 • Major coal and railway strikes occurred in 1911-1912 • Labour Party continued to grow in popularity

  28. Liverpool Transit Strike (1911)

  29. Irish Question • Act of Union (1800) • Ireland had been incorporated into the United Kingdom • Part had to do with the Irish Rebellion of 1798 • Other part was due to French sympathies generated during the French Revolution • Irish had numerous grievances • Tenant farmers had no recourse against their landlords • Were subjugated to the Church of Ireland (Anglican) while most of the population was Catholic • Gladstone attempted to address these issues • Church of Ireland was no longer the official state church after the Irish Church Disestablishment Act 1869

  30. Irish Question • Home Rule Bills • First initiated by Gladstone in 1886 but it did not pass the Commons • Started a split amongst the Liberals • Were attempted again in 1893 and 1914 • Passed in 1914 but suspended due to World War I • Ulstermen • Irish Protestants who strongly opposed the Home Rule Bill • Were afraid of being outnumbered by the Catholics • Gained the support of the Conservatives • Began arming themselves to fight if the bill passed • Signed Ulster Covenant in 1912 to support armed opposition

  31. Signing the Ulster Covenant (September 28, 1912)

  32. German Empire (1871-1890) • After 1871, Bismarck worked not with the Conservatives but with the National Liberals • Conservatives were still against the concept of a united Germany • Liberals were more eager to help centralize the state • Setting up the new administration • Sought to create the centralizing institutions of a modern state • Created a bicameral parliament • Bundesrat – Upper house with appointed delegates • Reichstag - Lower house elected through universal male suffrage • Executive power rested solely with Wilhelm who was both king and kaiser (emperor)

  33. German Empire (1871-1890) • Three problems facing Bismarck: • Divide between Catholics and Protestants • Growing Social Democratic party • Divisive economic interests of agriculture and industry • Addressing the Catholic Church • Bismarck wanted to subordinate the Church to the state • First Vatican Council reaffirmed papal infallibility in 1870 which would cause issues for Catholics in Germany • Catholics created a strong Center party that upheld church pronouncements

  34. German Empire (1871-1890) • Kulturkampf (cultural struggle) • Bismarck unleashed an anti-Catholic campaign • Appealed to sectarian tensions over public education and civil marriages • Popular with Liberals who were strongly anticlerical • Passed laws that imprisoned priests for political sermons • Banned Jesuits from Prussia • The campaign backfired • Catholic Center party won seats in the Reichstag in 1874 • Bismarck negotiated an alliance with the Catholic Center

  35. German Empire (1871-1890) • Economic downturn of the late 1870s forced Bismarck to create a new coalition • Combined agricultural and industrial interests as well as socially conservative Catholics • Passed protectionist legislation that upset laissez-faire supporters and the working class • Social Democrats became the new enemies • German Social Democratic party (SPD) was formed in 1875 • Blend of Marxian socialists and moderate reformers • Attempted assassinations • In 1878, there were two failed assassination attempts against Wilhelm

  36. German Empire (1871-1890) • Anti-SPD legislation • Bismarck associated socialism with the anarchy • Passed numerous antisocialist laws between 1878 and 1880 • Expelled socialists from major cities • The party still managed to win elections even though it was technically illegal • Bismarck did pass some social welfare • Workers guaranteed sickness and accident insurance • Rigorous factory inspection • Limited working hours for women and children • Old-age pensions • Still failed to win over the working class

  37. Wilhelm II • (1888-1918)

  38. Wilhelm II (1888-1918) • By 1890, support for the SPD continued to grow • Votes for SPD quadrupled between 1881 and 1890 • William II (1888–1918) • Wanted Germany to go on a “new course” in 1890 • He wanted to rule Germany, not Bismarck • Called for the resignation of Bismarck • Suspended antisocialist legislation and legalized the SPD • SPD continued to gain in popularity • Received 1/3 total votes in election of 1912 • Received 110 members into the Reichstag • However, they were still excluded from the highest government positions

  39. Political cartoon depicting Wilhelm I “dropping the pilot” (Bismarck)

  40. Russia: Road to Revolution • Russia was plagued with problems after 1871 • The autocratic political system was unable to handle the conflict and pressures from modern society • Threatened by Western industrialization and political doctrines • Russia responded with some reform but repression as well • Russian industrialization (1880s–1890s) • State-directed industrial development • Serfs emancipated in 1861 • No independent middle class capable of raising capital • Rapid industrialization heightened social tensions • Workers left their villages temporarily to work in factories, and then returned for planting and harvest

  41. Russia: Road to Revolution • The legal system had not been modernized • No recognition of trade unions or employers’ associations • Still distinguished between nobles and peasants rather than modern society • Contained outdated banking and finance laws • Alexander III (1881–1894) • Steered the country toward the right • Believed Russia had nothing in common with the west • Focused on repression, especially of liberal ideas • Curtailed power of the zemstvos • Increased authority of the secret police

  42. Russia: Road to Revolution • Nicholas II (1894–1917) • Continued these “counter-reforms” • Advocated Russification over non-Russian subjects • Targeted the Jews with pogroms and open anti-Semitism • Rise of the Populists • Believed that Russia should modernize on its own terms, not those of the West • Wanted egalitarianism based on the village commune (mir) • Formed secret bands with the hope of overthrowing the tsar through anarchy and insurrection • Read Marx’s Das Capital and emphasized peasant socialism • Played a role in the creation of the Social Revolutionary Party in 1901

  43. Russia: Road to Revolution • Russian Social-Democratic Labor Party (RSDLP) • Main form of Russian Marxism • Grew in response to growing Populism • Concentrated on urban workers rather than peasantry • Believed that Russian autocracy would give way to capitalism • Capitalism would eventually give way to a classless society • Blended radicalism with a scientific approach to history • In 1903, the Social Democratic party split • Occurred at the Second Congress which met in London • Was over the major points of the Party’s program

  44. Russia: Road to Revolution • Bolsheviks (“majority”) • Called for a central party organization of active revolutionaries • Rapid industrialization meant they did not have to follow Marx • Could “skip a stage” straight into revolution • Eventually would become the foundation of the Communist Party • Mensheviks (“minority”) • Believed in a “gradualist” approach of slow changes • Reluctant to depart from Marxist orthodoxy • Able to regain control of the Social Democratic Party

  45. Vladimir Lenin • (1870-1924)

  46. Vladimir Lenin (1870-1924) • Vladimir Lenin (1870-1924) • Older brother was executed for his involvement in the assassination of Alexander II • Was under suspicion for a plot against Alexander III in 1896 • In exile in Siberia from 1897-1900 • Remained in political exile from 1900 to 1917 in western Europe • Becomes the leader of the Bolsheviks • Believed in the need for a coordinated socialist movement • What Is to Be Done? (1902) • Denounced gradualists and called for revolution • Wanted to form a smaller organization of vanguards to lead the working class

  47. First Russian Revolution (1905) • Took most of the revolutionaries by surprise • Number of factors led to it • The defeat of Russia in the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905) • Rapid industrialization had transformed Russia unevenly • Economic downturn of the 1900s lead to high unemployment • Low grain prices eventually led to peasant uprisings • All combined with student radicalism to turn it all into a politically based movement • Russian government was not able to handle the problems • Radical workers organized strikes and demonstrations • Trust in the tsar declined dramatically

  48. First Russian Revolution (1905) • “Bloody Sunday” (January 22, 1905) • Group of 200,000 workers demonstrated at the Winter Palace • Guard troops killed 130 and wounded several hundred • Led to mass strikes throughout the country • Stores and factories were shut down • The autocracy had lost control • Nicholas II issued October Manifesto (October 14, 1905) • Guaranteed individual liberties • Established the Duma as the legislative body based on moderate suffrage • Effectively ended the strikes and protests • Designed to set up a constitutional monarchy

  49. Demonstration of October 17 - Ilya Repin

  50. Russia After 1905 Revolution • Not everyone was happy with the October Manifesto • Radicals wanted greater changes included universal male suffrage • Nicholas failed to see that fundamental change was needed • Wanted to hold on to autocratic power • Revoked most of the promises made in October • Deprived the Duma of its principal powers • PyotrStolypin (1862–1911) • Was the Prime Minister under Nicholas II • Wanted to repress revolutionary movement in Russia • At the same time wanted to bring in agrarian reforms