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Modern Europe I HIS-106. Unit 10 - The French Revolution. What is a Revolution?. A “revolution” can be broken down into four requirements: An overthrow of the existing government but not just a simple coup d’etat The placement of a new governmental system to replace the old

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modern europe i his 106

Modern Europe IHIS-106

Unit 10 - The French Revolution

what is a revolution
What is a Revolution?
  • A “revolution” can be broken down into four requirements:
    • An overthrow of the existing government but not just a simple coup d’etat
    • The placement of a new governmental system to replace the old
    • The participants of the revolution must be “home grown” and not be pushed by an outside group
    • It occurs in the modern period as most of the ideas of “revolution” come out of the Enlightenment of the 17th and 18th centuries
importance of the french revolution
Importance of the French Revolution
  • There are three things that made the Revolution important:
    • What occurred in France becomes a model for future revolutions in Europe even up to modern day
    • It changed the political map of Europe for the rest of the modern period
    • It brought the people into politics
      • Before, politics had been limited to the upper classes, the nobility, and the clergy
      • Afterwards, the masses were able to participate in government
what makes france so special
What Makes France So Special?
  • In the 18th century, France was the most advanced and powerful country in Europe
  • It was one of the dominant military powers, rivaled only by Britain
    • France helped the Americans win their independence from the British
  • It was the most populous country in Europe
    • The population of France was around 24 million which was even larger than Russia before the divisions of Poland
    • Paris was only rivaled by London in size
what makes france so special1
What Makes France So Special?
  • France was also the center of the Enlightenment and the radical ideas of the time
    • This was ironic since it was also one of the most oppressed countries in Europe when it came to freedom of speech
    • The philosophes set down the modern political and social theories that sparked many of the revolutions
  • French culture also dominated Europe
    • French became the “official” language of many of the courts of the time
  • When the revolution breaks out in France, it was going to have a major impact on Europe, for good or for bad
france before the revolution
France Before the Revolution
  • The Ancien Régime
    • The ruling dynasties were the Valois and Bourbon (1328-1792)
    • It was a period of aristocratic privilege similar to the old feudal system of the Middle Ages
  • Starting in the 18th century, tensions arose among the various classes
    • Aristocrats resented the freedoms the monarchs had allowed the middle class
    • Middle class resented a society of privilege that was outmoded
    • Peasants resented the increasing demands of the central government
causes of the french revolution
Causes of the French Revolution
  • Four categories of causes of the French Revolution
  • Intellectual Causes
    • Mainly based on the influence of Enlightenment ideas
      • Liberal ideals
      • “Rights of Man” - Life, liberty, and property
      • Self-Determination - A government “by the people”
      • Equality under the law
      • End to Feudalism and State-Controlled Economy
    • American Revolution also played a role
      • Creation of a Free Republic
      • Many French fought in the American Revolution
the three estates
The Three Estates
  • Social causes of the Revolution are based on the archaic three estate system
    • First Estate (premier état) - The Church
    • Second Estate (deuxieme état) - The Nobility
    • Third Estate (tiers état) – Everybody else
  • Power was in the hands of the first two estates
    • Made up only around 5% of the population
    • Controlled most of the wealth and political power
  • Third Estate paid most of the taxes
    • Did not enjoy any political power even though its wealth and numbers were growing
the three estates1
The Three Estates
  • First Estate - Clergy
    • Made up 1% of the population (~100,000)
    • Owned 10% of the land in France
    • Exempt from property taxes
    • This estate collected a tithe, a 10% annual tax
  • Second Estate - Nobility
    • Made up around 2.5% of the population (~400,000)
    • Owned 20% of the land
    • "Noblesse d'épée" - ("Nobility of the Sword“) – Old Nobility
    • 50,000 new nobles created between 1700 and 1789
    • "Noblesse de Robe" - ("Nobility of the Robe“) – New Nobility
the three estates2
The Three Estates
  • Third Estate – Everybody else
    • Made up approximately 97% of the population
    • Mainly peasants who paid most of the taxes
    • Owed obligations to landlord, church, and state
    • Direct and indirect taxation a heavy burden
    • The corvée
  • Social boundaries between noble and non-noble ill-defined
    • Most noble wealth was proprietary (tied to land)
    • Influx of new wealth from banking, shipping, slave trade, and mining
    • Bourgeoisie identified with the nobility, not the common people
Louis XVI
    • (1774-1792)
louis xvi 1774 1792
Louis XVI (1774-1792)
  • The political cause centered around the reign of Louis XVI
  • Louis XVI came to the throne at the age of 19
  • He had no interest in running the government
    • Like his grandfather, he was more concerned about hunting
    • On July 14, 1789, he put in his hunting journal only one word: “rien” (“nothing”)
  • Hired Jean-FrédéricPhélypeaux, Count of Maurepas, to be his chief advisor
    • Suggested the revival in the use of the parlements
      • These had been abolished during the reign of Louis XV
      • Louis thought this would increase his popularity with the nobility
louis xvi 1774 17921
Louis XVI (1774-1792)
  • In France, there were 13 parlements
    • The parlements did not write legislation
    • Instead, they were only required to ratify laws and take care of some administrative tasks
    • The king always had the right to veto any act of parlement
  • The most powerful of the parlements was the one in Paris
    • Here was where the king would request a lit de justice to have royal edicts passed
  • For a short period of time during the reign of Louis XV, the parlements were given the right to veto a king’s act
    • As their members came from the Second Estate, they were unwilling to bring about any reforms that would threaten their power
louis xvi 1774 17922
Louis XVI (1774-1792)
  • Louis also did not show much interest in producing an heir to the throne
  • Married Marie Antoinette in 1700 at age 15
    • However, the marriage was not consummated until seven years later
    • May have been due to immaturity, impotence, or may have had a condition known as phimosis
  • Marie Antoinette was not very popular
    • She dispensed patronage among her friends
    • In 1783, the Hameau de la Reine ("The Queen's hamlet") was built for her by Louis XVI
    • In 1785, there was the Diamond Necklace Affair
economic causes of the revolution
Economic Causes of the Revolution
  • Major cause of the Revolution: Economics
    • Played a role both in the long and short term
    • By 1780s, French economy was failing
  • Massive national debt
    • Accumulated during the reigns of Louis XIV and Louis XV
    • Due to the number of wars
    • Old tax system could not pay off the debt
    • The debt was viewed not as the country’s debt but the king’s
    • By 1764, the national debt was up to 2.3 billion
      • Worth ~ $15.5 billion in 2010 currency
    • Interest on these loans was costing 60% of the annual budget
economic causes of the revolution1
Economic Causes of the Revolution
  • Many countries in Europe were also in debt
    • Due to wars and economic depressions in the mid-1760s
    • Their tax systems were more efficient
  • Wartime taxes
    • Tried to extend wartime taxes to help pay these debts
    • Parlements opposed them
    • Focused instead on paying the interest rather than principle
  • Antiquated tax system
    • Taxes were collected by tax “farmers”
    • They collected the indirect taxes, such as tailleand gabelle(salt tax)
    • Able to keep a percentage of the taxes collected
economic causes of the revolution2
Economic Causes of the Revolution
  • Only the Third Estate paid all the taxes
    • Taxation tied to social status and varied from region to region
    • It was mainly paid by the peasantry whose incomes were the lowest in the country
  • Not enough money going into the royal treasury
    • Yet France was considered one of the wealthiest countries
  • Attempts to reform taxes
    • Were attempts to tax nobility
    • All were opposed by the parlements
    • This conflict peaked during the reign of Louis XVI
Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot
    • French Finance Minister
    • (1774-1776)
rising economic crisis
Rising Economic Crisis
  • Louis hired a number of financial ministers to help with the debt
  • Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot
    • He strongly followed laissez-faire styled economics
    • Wanted to implement a property tax
    • Parlements vetoed Turgot’s proposals
    • Could have saved France?
  • Jacques Necker
    • “Old school” economist and mercantilist
    • Managed financing for the American Revolution
      • Got loans to pay for the 1.3 billion livre cost
      • Ended up making the debt much worse
Jacques Necker
    • French Finance Minister (1777-1781)
rising economic crisis1
Rising Economic Crisis
  • Tensions between the central governments and the provincial parlements slowed reform
    • Parlements defend nobility’s exemption from paying taxes to pay for the Seven Years’ War
  • Charles-Alexandre de Calonne
    • Was appointed as finance minister in 1783
    • By August 1786, France had a deficit of 112 million livre
    • The loans accumulated since 1776 totaled 1.25 billion in debt
    • At this point, France had no way of paying all of its debts
    • Calonne realized that minor changes would not help the government get out of debt
rising economic crisis2
Rising Economic Crisis
  • Calonne proposed a tax on all the people of France
    • This would include the nobility
    • General tax on all landowners to replace the taille
  • Calling of the Assemblée des notables
    • Calonne knew he would have problems getting these taxes through the Parlements
    • Called an Assemblée des notables instead
    • If they supported his plan, he would have little difficultly getting it passed in the Parlements
  • Assembly of Notables was called on February 22, 1787
    • There were 144 people in attendance
    • Included the highest of the nobility, church, and bourgeoisie
Political cartoon of the Assembly of Notables

“My dear creatures, I have assembled you here to deliberate on the sauce in which you will be served”

rising economic crisis3
Rising Economic Crisis
  • Aristocrats used the financial emergency to extract constitutional reforms
    • Were willing to make some radical changes
    • This included the implementation of a land tax
  • Insisted that any new tax scheme be approved by the Estates-General
    • They refused to pass anything resembling a general tax
  • On April 8, 1787, Louis XVI fired Calonne
    • Replaced with Etienne Charles Lomenie de Brienne
  • Brienne was also unsuccessful at getting the tax laws passed
rising economic crisis4
Rising Economic Crisis
  • Brienne turned to the clergy for help
    • Requested a large payment from them to help out the country’s finances
    • They refused
  • Brienne realized that there was nothing else he could do
    • Nothing would get passed without calling the Estates General
  • In August 1788, the financial crisis had worsened
    • On August 8, he announced that the Estates General would meet in May 1789
    • On August 16, the government stops repaying loans
Qu'est ce que le Tiers Etat?
    • What is the Third Estate? By Abbé Sieyès (January 1789)
calling of the estates general
Calling of the Estates General
  • Estates-General had not been called since 1614
  • The Three Estates elected delegates
    • Drew up the cahiers et doléances (list of grievances)
  • The delegates of the Third Estate represented the outlook of the elite
    • 25 percent lawyers, 43 percent government officials
    • Strong sense of common grievance and common purpose
  • Should the estates vote by estate or by individual?
    • Parlement of Paris stated that each of the estates would have only one vote each
    • Third Estate wanted double representation in the Estates
calling of the estates general1
Calling of the Estates General
  • Double representation
    • On December 27, 1788, Louis allowed for double representation for the Third Estate
  • What is the Third Estate? (January 1789)
    • Pamphlet written by AbbéSieyès
    • Stated that the true desire of the Third Estate was to have true political power and have equal power to the first two estates combined
    • He also stated that the votes should be taken by head, not by estate
    • This sparked further debates throughout France
    • Lambasted the Second Estate as being useless without the Third Estate
the estates general
The Estates General
  • The delegates for the Estates General met at Versailles on May 2, 1789
    • First two estates were greeted by Louis in the Hall of Mirrors
    • Third Estate was forced to wait until four hours later to meet the king in a different part of the palace
  • The Estates General opened on May 5
    • The three estates were to be seated in different chambers
    • The Third Estate refused to be segregated
    • Requested that all three estates sit in the same chamber
    • King announced that the voting would be by estate with each having one vote
    • Third Estate refused to pass any measures
the estates general1
The Estates General
  • On May 28th, the Third Estate began meeting on its own
    • They now called themselves the Communes (“Commons”)
  • AbbéSieyès also told the Commons that they should invite members of the other two estates to join them
    • They were hoping to attract the parish priests as many of them were poor
    • A number of clergy did join them
  • Commons wanted to create a new legislative body
    • This was because more than one estate was in attendance
    • AbbéSieyès stated that this body represented 98% of the country
    • It should start work immediately on the restoration of France
the national assembly
The National Assembly
  • Creation of the National Assembly
    • Created by vote on June 17, 1789
    • Passed a measure stating that all taxes could not be collected unless passed by the National Assembly
  • Assembly continued to invited members of the other two estates to join
    • By June 19, 1789, over 100 clergy and nobility had joined
  • Louis planned a séance royale(Royal Session)
    • The purpose was to try to get the three estates back on track
    • The location was to be in the Salle des États, the meeting place of the Assembly
    • When the National Assembly showed up to the Salle des États on June 20, 1789, they found the doors locked
the national assembly1
The National Assembly
  • The Assembly moved to a nearby indoor tennis court
  • Tennis Court Oath (June 20, 1789)
    • The members in attendance gave the following oath:
    • “We swear never to separate ourselves from the National Assembly, and to reassemble wherever circumstances require, until the constitution of the realm is drawn up and fixed upon solid foundations.”
    • It was passed 576-1 by the members
  • This was a key action by the National Assembly
    • They were going to put together a constitution with or without the king
    • The Assembly had true power of the country as it represented the people
the national assembly2
The National Assembly
  • On June 22, 1789, the Assembly found itself locked out of the tennis court
    • The group went on to meet in the church of St. Louis
  • Louis recalled over 18,000 soldiers to Versailles
    • He would use them disband the Assembly by force if necessary
  • By June 24, most of the clergy had joined the Assembly along with 48 nobility
  • On June 27, Louis ordered all the delegates to join the Assembly
  • On July 9, the Assembly renamed itself the National Constituent Assembly
revolution from below
Revolution from Below
  • There were two sides to the revolution
    • The middle- and upper-classes were bringing about change for the country via politics
    • The lower-classes were making changes through riots
  • Suffering lower classes
    • They endured increases in the taille, gabelle, and in feudal dues
    • Hoped that the calling of the Estates General would help ease their financial burdens
  • Bread shortages
    • During the 1780s, weather patterns had a negative impact on crops
    • It was a peak period in the “Little Ice Age”
    • Eruptions in Iceland from 1783-1785
revolution from below1
Revolution from Below
  • These weather patterns led to a decline in crop outputs
    • Bad winter in 1787/1788
    • Followed by severe hailstorm in July 1788
    • Led to a sharp increase in the price of grain and bread
  • Bread was a mainstay of the peasant’s diet
    • By 1788, most peasants were spending upwards of 50% of their income just on bread alone
    • By 1789, 80% of their income went to bread (highest since 1714)
    • This led to a severe food crisis throughout France
  • From 1785 to 1789, the cost of living increased 62%
    • However, wages only went up 22%
revolution from below2
Revolution from Below
  • No government relief
    • Due to the country’s poor financial status
    • Some towns attempted to fix the price of bread
    • Failed to stop the growing famine in many regions
  • Economic depression made matters worse
    • Incomes of many workers declined rapidly
    • Rise in unemployment
  • Many peasants stopped paying their feudal dues and taxes
    • Some moved into the cities but were unable to find work
  • In the towns and cities, labor revolts broke out in the spring of 1789
revolution from below3
Revolution from Below
  • Increase in crime and vagrancy
    • Due to so many people out of work and searching for food
  • Growing paranoia
    • Lower-class was positive the king and nobility were going to shut down the Third Estate
    • Specifically, they were fearful that the king was going to forcibly disband the Constituent Assembly
    • Rumors circulated that Louis was about to stage a coup d’état
  • Many people and towns began to arm themselves for protection
  • Parisian workers (sans-culottes) organized a militia of volunteers
storming of the bastille
Storming of the Bastille
  • Riots and looting broke out on July 12, 1789
    • Many were looking for food and for weaponry
    • The GardesFrançaises (French Guards) stood back and allowed the looting to occur as they were sympathetic to the people
  • July 14, a mob took weapons from the Hôtel des Invalides
    • They were able to take 28,000 muskets and ten cannons
    • However, they were not able to secure enough ammunition
  • The next target was the fortress of the Bastille
    • There was the belief that the Bastille held 250 barrels (20,000 pounds) of gunpowder
    • The mob ransacked the prison and took the governor and guards hostage
great fear of 1789
Great Fear of 1789
  • On July 17, 1789, the Revolution spread to the countryside
  • The situation there was already tense
    • Increase in vagrants, beggars, and criminals
    • Convinced that the nobility had employed these people to terrorize them
    • Rumors that the king’s armies were on their way
    • The peasants responded by arming themselves in self-defense
  • The peasants wanted to destroy the manorial system
    • Burned the buildings where the taxes were collected
    • It escalated to sacking and burning down the manor homes
  • The nobility was forced to flee the countryside
august days
August Days
  • On August 4, 1789, the Assembly voted to:
    • Give up their seigneurial rights and declared an end to serfdom
    • Declare an end to the tithe, special privileges, and tax privileges
  • The Declarations of the Rights of Man and Citizen
    • Issued by the Assembly on August 26, 1789
    • Based on the ideas of the natural rights of man
    • Every citizen had the right to “liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression”
    • All citizens were equal in the eyes of the law
    • “Law is the expression of the general will”
    • It called for the government by the people
    • The people were to decide how taxes were to be collected
august days1
August Days
  • The period of all of these changes became known as the “August Days”
    • Legislation the “August Decrees”
  • Working on a new government and constitution
    • The differing factors in the Assembly made this a difficult task
    • Conservatives wanted to keep the king as the main authority of the government with a bicameral legislature
    • Liberals wanted a unicameral legislative body
    • This was out of fear that the nobility in the upper house would give themselves back some of its power
  • Louis had refused to recognize the Declarations
october days
October Days
  • Women began gathering in Paris in early October 1789
    • They were specifically demanding bread
  • Rumors circulated that the king was hoarding bread at Versailles
    • The women decided to march on Versailles
  • Thousands of women had joined the march
    • Mainly middle-class women
    • Chanted songs about killing Marie Antoinette
    • Armed with broomsticks, pitchforks, muskets, and swords
    • By the time the group reached Versailles, the crowd numbered over 6,000
women s march on versailles
Women’s March on Versailles
  • Louis met with a delegation of the women in the palace
    • He said that he would give what bread was available in the palace to the women but they did not believe him
  • Very early in the morning of October 6th, a large group of women found an open gate to the palace
    • They wanted the “Austrian Whore” and rushed to the Queen’s apartments
    • They chased the Queen and her entourage into the King’s apartments
  • The National Guard was able to stop the mob and get them out of the palace
    • The mob outside could not be calmed down until they saw the royal family
women s march on versailles1
Women’s March on Versailles
  • There were many shouts of “Le Roi à Paris!”
    • They wanted Louis to see what was taking place there
  • Louis stated he would move the royal family to Paris
    • They were escorted to the city later that afternoon by both the National Guard and the armed women
    • They brought along flour found in Versailles as a “goodwill” gesture
  • The king was now forced to accept the August Decrees
    • Mobs affected politics
    • Louis was now a virtual prisoner of both the crowds and the Assembly
economic changes
Economic Changes
  • The first focus of the Constituent Assembly was to help stimulate the failing economy
  • The first step was to deal with the huge debt
    • It refused to forgive the debt
  • The Assembly turned its attention to the church
    • Clergy were seen as part of the feudalistic system
    • The church owned millions of livre worth of land that the country could sell off to pay off its debt
  • The Assembly decided to nationalize church lands
    • The state would take both the land and its expenses
    • It would also take over the burden of its charitable work
economic changes1
Economic Changes
  • On November 2, 1790, the confiscation of church land began
  • Assignats
    • These printed bonds were created as a form of legal tender
    • Backed by the value of the church land (~ 400 million livre)
  • Many of the clergy were very unhappy with this
    • Argued that the church did not own these lands as a whole
    • Also felt that the state would not take the charitable work as piously as the church
  • This policy led to a rise in anti-revolutionary feelings amongst the clergy
Illustration of the monks and nuns celebrating the end of ecclesiastical orders (February 16, 1790)
civil constitution of the clergy
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
  • Next step was secularizing the church
    • Assembly viewed the church as another “old school” power base
  • The first part of this included:
    • The end of the tithe (August 4, 1789)
    • The nationalization of church lands (November 2, 1789)
    • End to all ecclesiastical orders and monastic vows (February 13, 1790)
    • State control of all remaining church property (April 19, 1790)
  • Next was the reorganization of the church
    • This included putting control of the church in the hands of the state
civil constitution of the clergy1
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
  • Civil Constitution of the Clergy
    • Create 83 bishops, one for each départements
    • All church officials must be elected by the people
    • It also required all clergy to swear an oath to the state
    • The Constitution passed on July 12, 1790 by a large majority
  • There was much opposition to it from the clergy
    • Many were upset at the church being subordinate to the state
    • Others criticized how it reduced the spiritual authority of the pope
civil constitution of the clergy2
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
  • On November 27, 1790, the Assembly ordered all clergy to take the oath
    • Only seven bishops and 54% of parish priests took the oath
    • Those who refused were known as non-juring priests
  • King approved it on December 26, 1790
    • The pope never did and repudiated all clergy who took the oath
  • Created a huge schism between the Revolution and the Catholics
    • Many Catholics in the countryside who followed non-juring priests began a strong counter-revolutionary movement
    • There were also attacks against those who refused to conform to the Constitution
writing a new constitution
Writing A New Constitution
  • Writing of a new constitution
    • Became difficult as many of conservatives in the Assembly left
    • They were fearful that the new constitution was going to be influenced by the mobs rather than the politicians
    • Some even left the country and became émigrés
  • Other members began to form political clubs
    • Largest was the Jacobin Club
    • Started as a moderate political club but soon became infamous for its radical stances on politics
  • From October 1789 to September 1791, worked on restructuring the government
    • Wanted to decentralize the government by taking the power out of the king’s hands
constitution of 1791
Constitution of 1791
  • Constitution of 1791
    • King was a constitutional monarch
    • Had very limited powers
  • The Legislative Assembly was created
    • This was a unicameral legislature
    • Made up of 745 representatives who held two year terms
  • Only “active” citizens could vote for representatives
    • These were men over 25 who paid an annual tax equivalent to three days worth of labor (~ 3 livres) and were literate
    • While this meant that 4.3 million were eligible to vote, it was still only half of the male population
flight to varennes
Flight to Varennes
  • Still problems for the Revolution
    • Still hurting financially due to widespread tax evasion
    • Rising cost of living made the peasants unhappy
    • The clergy were opposed to the Revolutionary government
    • Political clubs, like the Jacobins, were pushing for more radical ideas
  • Louis XVI was especially unhappy
    • Did not want to be limited in his power as king
    • Was unhappy with the Civil Constitution of the clergy
  • On June 20, 1791, the royal family attempted to flee
    • Disguised as servants to a Russian baroness
    • They made it as far as the town of Varennes, near the Belgium border
flight to varennes1
Flight to Varennes
  • There, Louis was recognized by the local postmaster
    • One legend has it that Drouet recognized the king because his likeness was printed on all assignats
  • They were immediately arrested and forced to return to Paris five days later
  • The Constituent Assembly suspended the king’s authority upon his return to Paris
  • This event changed the course of the Revolution
    • The king was now viewed as a traitor
    • People began discussing the possibility of a republic without a king instead of a constitutional monarchy
legislative assembly
Legislative Assembly
  • On October 1, 1791, the Legislative Assembly met for the first time
  • It was divided into three main groups:
    • Jacobins – Radicals
    • Girondins – Republicans
    • Montagnards (Mountain) – Radical democrats
  • Assembly made more radical changes to the church
    • Nonjuring priests would lose their pensions and be declared “enemies of the patrie”
    • They also allowed for the marriage of priests
legislative assembly1
Legislative Assembly
  • Growing violence
    • Assembly had to take more radical action in response to the growing violence in southern France
    • Due to a growing counter-revolutionary movement of loyal Catholics in the region
  • Actions against émigrés
    • They were accused of fomenting plots against the Revolution
    • Their lands were confiscated and those on the borders were arrested
    • Assembly also required that all members of the royal family to return to France on the threat of having all of their property confiscated
turn to radical revolution
Turn to Radical Revolution
  • Radical Revolution (August 1792 - July 1794)
    • From moderate leaders to radical republicans
  • Why did the Revolution become radical?
  • The politicization of the common people, especially in cities
    • Newspapers
    • Political clubs
    • Greater political awareness heightened by fluctuations in prices
    • Demands for cheaper bread
    • Demands for government to do something about inflation
turn to radical revolution1
Turn to Radical Revolution
  • Lack of effective national leadership
    • Louis XVI remained a weak and vacillating monarch
    • Louis urged on by Marie Antoinette, sister of Leopold II of Austria
    • Louis now a “prisoner” of the Revolution
  • Revolutionary War
    • War broke out against France in April 1792
    • All Europeans took a side in the conflict
    • Big powers were strongly against the Revolution
    • Political societies formed outside France proclaimed their allegiance to the Revolution
    • France was losing the war in the beginning
Edmund Burke
    • (1729-1797)
the counter revolution
The Counter-Revolution
  • The émigrés stirred up counterrevolutionary sentiment
    • They circulated telling horror stories about the Revolution
  • Edmund Burke (1729-1797)
    • He was a British Politician
    • Wrote Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790)
    • He believed that the Revolution was based too much on abstract ideas and not practical ones
    • He attacked the revolution as a crime against the social order and accused the French of turning their backs on history
    • He also argued that men and women had no natural rights
    • This aroused sympathy for the counterrevolutionary cause
the counter revolution1
The Counter-Revolution
  • Thomas Paine (1737–1809)
    • He was an author and one of the Founding Fathers
    • He wrote The Rights of Man (1792) in response to Burke
    • He called for political liberalism in all nations
  • Outside France there was reaction as well
    • Austria and Prussia declared support for French monarchy in August 1791
    • Even in the U.S. there was mixed reaction to the Revolution: while many people supported it, many believed it had become too radical
the counter revolution2
The Counter-Revolution
  • On April 20, 1792, the Assembly declared war on Austria and Prussia
    • Expected the war to bolster public opinion behind the Revolution
    • Radicals hoped the war would expose “traitors”
  • By that summer, the situation bad for France
    • Prussian troops crossed over the border into France and got as far as Verdun
    • Girondins put the blame on Marie Antoinette for giving secrets to the Austrians
    • On July 11, 1792, Assembly declared that “La patrieest en danger”
    • All citizens were required to arm themselves
radicalization of the revolution
Radicalization of the Revolution
  • As the war continued to worsen for the French, the Revolution took a more radical turn
  • Throughout the summer of 1792, there were calls for the execution of the king
    • Assembly did not plan to take any direct actions against him
    • The people were going to have to push the issue
  • Journée du 10 août (August 10, 1792)
    • This began the “second” revolution
    • A mob marched on the Tuileries to take the power away from the king
    • When he fled to the Assembly, the mob followed him there
radicalization of the revolution1
Radicalization of the Revolution
  • Assembly had to decide what course of action to take
    • Only about 1/3 of its members made it to the Assembly
    • Of those in attendance, almost all of them were Jacobins
  • It stripped the king of all of his power
    • The royal family was to be placed under arrest
  • It also called for a new convention to be elected by universal male suffrage
    • The job of this National Convention would be to write a new constitution for the newly created republic
september massacres
September Massacres
  • On September 1, 1792, news reached the city of Paris that the fortress at Verdun had fallen
    • The calls for the execution of political prisoners increased
  • Patriotic Paris mobs convened revolutionary tribunal to try traitors
    • Started with the assassination of a group of non-juring priests
    • Throughout Paris, many prisoners were killed over the next five days
    • Over 1,200 were killed (about ½ the prison population), including 37 women
    • The estimated number of assassins involved was 150-200
september massacres1
September Massacres
  • One of the more famous people executed was the Princess de Lamballe
    • She was a friend of the queen who was stripped, hacked to death, and had her head paraded around on a pike
    • While some claim that she had also been raped and sexually mutilated, there is no proof of that
  • The Parisian government did nothing to stop the killings
    • Congratulated those who participated in the killings
    • Said they were doing their “duty” to the country
    • Encouraged other départments to follow the example
    • Led to even more killings outside of Paris
national convention
National Convention
  • When the Convention met on September 21, 1792, it was already dividing up into political groups
    • The most radical members, including Robespierre, sat high up in the Mountain seats
    • The Girondins took the right side of the Convention
    • The rest of the deputies took their seats in the lower level of the hall and became known as the Marais (“the plain”)
  • Jacobins outwardly supported the Parisian mobs
    • The Mountain also was willing to work with the sans-culottes
    • The Girondins supported the law and showed little respect towards the mob
national convention1
National Convention
  • Declaration of a Republic (September 22, 1792)
    • Convention was to declare a republic and an end to the monarchy
    • This day would later become the first day of Year I
  • What to do with the king?
    • Mountain wanted him executed for crimes against the nation
    • Girondins wanted to spare the king
  • Smoking gun
    • On November 20, 1792, a locked box was found inside the palace at the Tuileries
    • It contained Louis’ correspondence with Austria
    • This proved Louis was guilty of treason
trial of louis xvi
Trial of Louis XVI
  • Trial of Louis XVI (December 11, 1792-January 15, 1793)
    • Louis was charged with “having committed a multitude of crimes in order to establish your tyranny by destroying its liberty”
    • Convention voted 693-0 that Louis was guilty of all charges
    • By a majority of 74, it voted him to be executed for his crimes
  • Execution (January 21, 1793)
    • Louis was executed in the place de la Concorde by guillotine
    • Over 20,000 people watched the execution take place
    • Louis’ last words were “I die innocent of all the crimes of which I have been charged. I pardon those who have brought about my death and I pray that the blood you are about to shed may never be required of France”
domestic reforms
Domestic Reforms
  • National Convention put through key domestic reforms
    • Abolition of slavery in French colonies
    • Repeal of primogeniture
    • Confiscated property of enemies of the Revolution
    • Set maximum prices for grain (loi du maximum)
    • The revolutionary calendar
  • Small armies of sans-culottes attacked hoarders and profiteers
  • The Convention also had to put through key military reforms
    • By February 1793, France was at war with Britain, Netherlands, Spain, and Austria
domestic reforms1
Domestic Reforms
  • Levée (February 24, 1793)
    • Convention put through its first draft
    • It called for 300,000 men for its army
  • War Against the First Coalition (1793-1797)
    • By March, France was at war with all of Europe
    • The First Coalition included Prussia, Austria, Great Britain, Spain, and the United Provinces of the Netherlands
  • Civil War in Vendée
    • This was a very Catholic region in central western France that opposed the new draft
    • The people of the region erupted in revolt in March
“God and King”
    • Insignia worn by rebels in the Vendée civil war
background to the terror
Background to the Terror
  • Constitution of 1793
    • Convention passed a new constitution with universal male suffrage
    • It delayed its adoption because of the ever worsening situation
  • Committee of Public Safety (CPS)
    • Set up by the Convention on April 6, 1793
    • Its purpose was defend the country from both domestic and foreign enemies through the use of terror
  • Commission of Twelve
    • Created by the Girondins on May 19, 1793
    • It was designed to investigate the radical elements of the Paris Commune and sections
    • Many radicals were arrested by the Commission
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Background to the Terror
  • New radical leaders
    • Helped to shift the Revolution into more dangerous territory
  • Jean-Paul Marat (1743–1793)
    • Did not admire Great Britain
    • Opposed moderates
    • Edited The Friend of the People
    • On July 13, 1793, he was assassinated by Girondin Charlotte Corday
    • She claimed she “killed one man to save 100,000”
    • This event sparked anti-Girondist attacks throughout Paris
“Death of Marat”
    • Jacques-Louis David (1793)
background to the terror2
Background to the Terror
  • Georges-Jacques Danton (1759–1794)
    • Popular political leader
    • Member of the CPS
    • Wearied of the Terror
  • Maximilien Robespierre (1758–1794)
    • Trained as a lawyer
    • Became president of the National Convention
    • Member of the CPS
    • Enlarged the Terror
  • Things seemed to fall apart both from outside and within France
background to the terror3
Background to the Terror
  • The war continued to worsen for the French
    • French forces were pushed out of the Austrian Netherlands
    • The revolt in the Vendée continued on
    • Spanish forces crossed over the Pyrenees and Sardinian troops crossed the Alps into France
    • The British also installed a naval blockade of France
    • Toulon fell to the British
  • Levée en Masse (August 23, 1793)
    • All able-bodied men in France between the ages of 18-25 were to prepare for war
    • It also mobilized the French people to help with the war effort
background to the terror4
Background to the Terror
  • By September 1794, the Republican Army had over 1.1 million soldiers
    • This was the largest army seen in Europe to date
    • This army was then able to turn the war to the advantage of the French
  • CPS faced sabotage from the political left and right
    • Need for absolute control
    • The “Mountain” allies with Parisian artisans
    • Rebellions in Lyons, Bordeaux, and Marseilles
    • CPS rounds up suspects in the countryside
reign of terror
Reign of Terror
  • On September 5, 1793, mass demonstrations broke out again in Paris
    • Wanted greater measures against the counter-revolution
    • Including the arrest of all counter-revolutionaries and the creation of a internal Revolutionary Army to put down any revolts
  • “Terror is the order of the day”
    • Announced by the Committee
    • Would be willing to use whatever means necessary to end the counter-revolutionary movement inside France
    • This starts the “Reign of Terror”
    • From this point on, the Committee is the one running the country
reign of terror1
Reign of Terror
  • One of the first executed was Marie Antoinette
    • Even though there were a number of attempts to help her escape, she never once went along with them
  • She was brought to trial on October 14, 1793
    • The charges included incest with her son, sending military information to the enemy, and being personally responsible for the death of the Swiss Guards on August 10, 1792
  • The “Widow Capet” was found guilty the next day
    • She was executed by the guillotine on October 16, 1793
reign of terror2
Reign of Terror
  • Over the next few months, thousands were arrested and executed at the guillotine
    • By the end of the Terror, over 100,000 were “officially” arrested
    • Modern estimates are around 300,000
    • Over 16,000 were executed “officially”
    • 3,000 in Paris alone
    • Many historians believe that the actual death total was as high as 40,000-50,000
  • The areas hit hardest were those where the counter-revolution was located
reign of terror3
Reign of Terror
  • At the beginning, the executions were many held in the cities
  • In Lyons alone, almost 2,000 were killed
    • At one point, the Committee’s agent in the city believe the executions were not going fast enough so he ordered executions by cannon as well
  • By 1794, the Terror moved into the provinces
    • There were no class boundaries: 6% of those executed were clergy, 8% nobility, 15% middle class, and 70% peasants and working class
    • The peasants were mainly accused of hoarding bread and avoiding the draft
reign of terror4
Reign of Terror
  • In the city of Nantes, those found guilty were placed in barges in the middle of the Loire River
    • In the middle of the night, men would punch open trapdoors in the boats causing them to sink
    • Over 2,000 died this way with another 3,000 dying of disease in overcrowded prisons
  • In Bordeaux, some of the worst atrocities took place
    • One woman was forced to sit under the blade of a guillotine with blood dripping on her for hours before she was executed just because she cried over her husband’s death
reign of terror5
Reign of Terror
  • The executions took on a festival atmosphere
    • Tens of thousands would witness them with cries of “á la guillotine!”
    • Executions became known as the “red mass” with the guillotine as the “altar”
    • Bets would be taken on the order of who would be executed first
  • Many lived in fear of being brought up on charges
  • Others became sick of all the death
    • Madame Roland said “The time as come which was foretold when the people would ask for bread and be given corpses”
“It is dreadful but necessary”
    • “Cest affreux mais nécessaire”
    • From the Journal d'Autre Monde (1794)
rule of the cps
Rule of the CPS
  • The CPS did pass some beneficial laws
    • Many of the laws it passed were designed to protect the “people,” specifically the sans-culottes
    • Published all laws and decrees made by the government (Bulletin des loix)
    • It limited the amount of gold exported
    • All foreign specie and paper money was confiscated and replaced with assignats
    • Set the maximum price for bread and other necessities (loi du maximum général)
    • Ended what was left of the manorial system
    • Created extensive public schools
culture of the revolution
Culture of the Revolution
  • Revolution had impact on all aspects of life
  • Fashion was guided strongly by those in power
    • Prior to the Revolution, fashioned was focused on the elite and privileged
    • During the radical revolution, fashion mimicked the clothing of the sans-culottes
    • People would wear the Red Cap of Liberty
  • Hairstyles changed
    • Instead of long powdered hair, encouraged short hair
    • Short hair “is the only one which is suited to republicans: being simple, economical and requiring little time, it is care-free and so assures the independence of a person; it bears witness to a mind given to reflection, courageous enough to defy fashion.”
culture of the revolution1
Culture of the Revolution
  • Everything associated with the ancien regime was to be destroyed and a new civilization built on top of it
  • How you addressed a person was changed
    • No longer would a person be addressed as monsieur or madame
    • Now they were to be addressed as Citizen
  • In the arts, there were no longer to be any religious images
    • Artwork now focused on more patriotic images
    • This included personifying ideas such as virtue, republic, liberty
    • It also included images of battle and heroism, with people dying to save the Republic
Revolution playing cards with the king and queen replaced with the elements “La Terre” and “L’Air”
revolutionary calendar
Revolutionary Calendar
  • Revolutionary Calendar
    • The purpose was to rid France of every aspect of Christianity including the Gregorian calendar
    • It was adopted on October 5, 1793
  • There would still be twelve months
    • Months had new names based on nature
    • They were all 30 days long
    • Weeks (décades) were divided up into ten day slots instead of seven
    • The days were also renamed as well: primidi (first day), duodi (second day), tridi (third day), etc.
    • The new year would start on the Autumnal Equinox
revolutionary calendar1
Revolutionary Calendar
  • Remaining five days would be holidays
    • They were to be known as the sans-culottides
    • Devoted to festivals representing the Revolutionary ideals
  • In leap years, an extra day known as “Fraciade” was put in
    • Be a celebration of a Revolution four years in the making
  • Not everyone was enamored with the new calendar
    • Many peasants and workers were upset
    • Others did not like the removal of Sundays and saints’ days
  • The British enjoyed making fun of the new calendar
    • They translated the months as “Wheezy, Sneezy and Freezy; Slippy, Drippy and Nippy; Showery, Flowery and Bowery; Wheaty, Heaty and Sweety”
  • Dechristianization of France
    • All of these efforts were part of a greater effort to dechristianize France
    • This had been going on since the passage of the Civil Constitution of the Clergy
  • During the Reign of Terror, there were even greater moves to rid the country of Christianity
    • Many pushed for a culte de la Raison (Cult of Reason)
    • Demonstrations broke out to bring an end to Christianity
    • Notre Dame cathedral was rechristened the Temple of Reason
    • Convention outlawed Catholic mass on November 24, 1793
    • In its place, the Cult of Reason was considered the “official” religion
last days of the terror
Last Days of the Terror
  • During the spring of 1794, the CPS focused its attention on all dissenting groups
    • In March, many of the radicals (enrages) in Paris were executed
    • In April the more conservative members of the Mountain were executed as well, including Danton
    • Robespierre surrounded himself with like-minded individuals under the guise of national security
  • Also that spring the Revolutionary Army was winning
    • The army now had 800,000 men
    • The Coalition was also distracted by the Kościuszko Uprising in Poland
    • The army was preparing for an all out invasion of the Netherlands to occur that winter
last days of the terror1
Last Days of the Terror
  • In Paris, Robespierre continued to assert his power
  • On May 7, 1794, he created the Cult of the Supreme Being
    • This was a blend of Deism and republican values designed to replace the Cult of Reason
    • Not everyone was pleased with this change
    • It did not have the pageants or festivals associated with the Cult of Reason
    • Also, this new religion did not allow for other religions to exist
  • On June 8th, Robespierre held the Festival of the Supreme Being
thermidorian reaction
Thermidorian Reaction
  • By this point, the need for the CPS was gone
    • The French military was now winning so there was no longer a need to protect the security of the nation
    • The food shortages and out of control inflation had ended
    • Even the revolt in the Vendée had died down
  • The CPS also lost the support of those who had originally put them in power
    • Part of this had to do with the execution of the enrages and Dantonists
    • Part had to do with the forced Cult of the Supreme Being
thermidorian reaction1
Thermidorian Reaction
  • Law of 22 Prairial (June 10, 1794)
    • Passed by the CPS
    • This was also as the loi de la Grande Terreur
    • Limited a suspect’s ability to defend him/herself
    • Increased the number of “crimes” punishable by death
  • That month, over 1,300 were executed in Paris alone
  • With this, numerous rumors flew around the city of plots to overthrow Robespierre
    • Robespierre responded by addressing the Convention, threatening them with arrest
thermidorian reaction2
Thermidorian Reaction
  • Robespierre’s Arrest (July 27, 1794)
    • On 9 Thermidor, the National Convention with demands for his arrest
    • He was arrested later that day with four of his supporters
    • The next day, Robespierre was executed without trial
  • The purpose of the Reaction was clear
    • Now that the country was more stable, the Convention wanted to reassert its own power
    • Many believed that the Committee and the Paris Commune had taken too much power
    • The power would go back into the hands of the people
thermidorian reaction3
Thermidorian Reaction
  • “White Terror”
    • This was followed with the systematic elimination of Jacobins throughout France
    • Jacobins were arrested and executed and Jacobin Clubs shut down
    • Ironically, 45 anti-Robespierrists were executed on July 27th but 104 Robespierrists were killed the next day by the same guillotine
  • Governmental policies took a more moderate leaning
    • Many members were Girondins who had survived the storm of the terror
    • Many of the policies were beneficial mainly to the middle-class
thermidorian reaction4
Thermidorian Reaction
  • The poor were still unhappy with the Reaction
    • A majority of their leaders had been killed
    • The Convention lifted all of the beneficial price controls implemented during the Terror
    • Inflation once again became severe
  • The winter of 1794-5 was harsh
    • By April 1795, the price of bread skyrocketed again to more than 2 livres a pound
    • New cries rose up for bread and relief from food shortages
    • Revolts broke out once again throughout France
constitution of year iii
Constitution of Year III
  • Working on a new constitution (summer 1795)
    • Constitution of Year I was deemed to radical
    • Democracy now was associated with the Terror and mob rule
    • Still wanted to embrace the ideals of the Enlightenment
    • The new constitution was still to be much more conservative
  • Constitution of Year III (August 22, 1795)
    • Executive power would be held by a new five-man Directory
    • Legislative power would be held by two councils
    • Council of 500 contained men over the age of 30 and had the power to write the laws
    • Council of Ancients contained 250 married or widowed men over the age of 40 and had the power to pass the laws
constitution of year iii1
Constitution of Year III
  • In order to keep the councils “fresh,” one-third of the members of each council must retire each year
  • The aim of this set up was to avoid a dictatorship but prevent excessive democracy as well
  • The Constitution also changed voter eligibility
    • No longer was there universal male suffrage
    • Instead, eligibility was based on property ownership
  • The members of the new government were mainly Girondins
    • Mainly of the wealthy middle-class
    • (de jure 1795-1824)
    • (de facto 1814-1824)
thermidorian reaction5
Thermidorian Reaction
  • One of the greatest threats the Convention and the new Constitution faced was from the Royalists
  • Return of the émigrés
    • Convention grated amnesty to those who fled France after May 1793
    • It was seen as proof of its more moderate temperament
    • This brought the hopes of a reestablished monarchy to some
  • Death of Louis XVII (June 8, 1795)
    • Louis XVI’s son had died from tuberculosis
  • Many began to turn to Louis XVI’s brother, the Comte de Provence, as their new king (Louis XVIII)
royalist unrest
Royalist Unrest
  • Declaration of Verona (June 24, 1795)
    • Louis XVIII stated France must return to pre-Revolutionary status
    • This included a restoration of the Old Regime, returning all lands confiscated to their original owners, and the old manorial system
    • By making such a request, this ends any support for the restoration of the monarchy by a majority of the population
  • There was still enough support to cause significant unrest
    • The Royalists were also offended by the new constitution as they had been excluded from participating in the new government
    • In June 1795, a Royalist offensive broke out in northwest France which led to a new civil war in that region
royalist unrest1
Royalist Unrest
  • Royalist supporters looked for the perfect opportunity to attack the Convention
    • One of the groups they played to was the urban poor
    • By September 1795, the cost of living was 30 times higher than that in 1790 due to severe inflation
    • For example, sugar went up from 11 to 62 livres a pound
  • Economic conditions gave the Royalists what they needed
    • They could play upon the general unrest of the time for their own cause
    • Their plan: both counter-revolutionaries and émigrés were to attack Paris directly
royalist unrest2
Royalist Unrest
  • Royalist forces landed in the Vendée in September 1795
    • The forces included 3,000 émigrés and British troops
    • The troops met up with other royalist forces and proceeded to march to the city of Paris
  • In Paris, the Royalists were agitating the situation
    • Blamed the Convention for the poor economic conditions
    • This led to a number of riots to break out throughout the city
  • On October 4, 1975, Convention forces under General Jacques-François Menou marched into Le Pellitiersection
    • This was where the heart of the rioting was taking place
    • He tried to negotiate with the rioters instead of disarming them
    • Menou was replaced by the Convention with Paul Barras
    • Barras appointed a young Brigadier-General Napoléon Bonaparte to serve under him
napol on bonaparte 1769 1821
Napoléon Bonaparte (1769-1821)
  • NapoleonediBuonaparte (1769-1821)
    • Born in Corsica to a minor noble family
    • Starting at the age of 10, received extensive military training
  • Napoléon and the early Revolution
    • Napoléon was fighting in Corsica
    • The fight there was not only between Revolutionaries and Royalists, but Corsican Nationalists as well
    • By 1792, he aligned himself with the Jacobins
  • Siege of Toulon (autumn 1793)
    • When he first made a name for himself
    • His artillery tactics helped to retake the city on December 19
    • During the battle, he was injured by a bayonet in the thigh
napol on bonaparte 1769 18211
Napoléon Bonaparte (1769-1821)
  • Promotion to Brigadier-General
    • Because of his actions at Toulon, he was promoted to Brigadier-General
    • He was also given the command of an Italian artillery in Nice
  • During the Thermidorian Reaction, Napoléon fell out of favor
    • This was due to his association with Robespierre’s family
    • He was arrested for a short period of time
  • Napoléon was then assigned to fight as part of the infantry in the Vendée
    • He refused to do so because it was seen as a demotion
    • He claimed he was ill and required sick leave
napol on bonaparte 1769 18212
Napoléon Bonaparte (1769-1821)
  • When he returned, he asked for a field command
    • Instead was given a staff position in the Bureau of Topography
    • Napoléon was miserable in this position
    • He was even removed from the list of active generals because he refused to go to the Vendée
  • His next step was to travel to the Ottoman Empire
    • He was hoping to gain an artillery position with the Sultan
  • Napoléon happened to be in Paris when he was approached by Barras
    • Barras had been one of the commanders at Toulon
    • Napoléon was quick to take command on October 4, 1795
13 vend miaire
13 Vendémiaire
  • Journée of 13 Vendémiaire (October 5, 1795)
    • Royalist forces began to march to the Tuileries to overthrow the Convention
  • The Royalists had over 40,000 troops
    • This included those forces marching into the city from the west and the sections in Paris
    • The Convention only had around 8,000
  • Earlier that morning, Napoléon had sent for 40 cannons located outside of the city to aid his troops
    • This decision proved to be a key move because the cannons negated the numbers advantage the Royalists had
13 vend miaire1
13 Vendémiaire
  • Between the artillery and the “Patriots” battalions, the Royalist forces were defeated in two hours
    • 19th century historian, Thomas Carlyle, said that Napoléon defeated them with “a whiff of grapeshot”
  • Because of his successful command, Napoléon was promoted to Général de Division
    • He was only 26 at the time
  • Law of 3 Brumaire (October 25, 1795)
    • Convention forbade all seditionists from holding public office
    • Now, the Royalists were no longer a threat to the Revolution
Paul Barras
    • Director
    • (1795-1799)
the directory
The Directory
  • The Directory first met on November 3, 1795
    • All five of the Directors chosen came from the Convention
    • Mix of Jacobins and moderates
  • Directors wanted to fix “the chaos which always accompanies revolutions by a new social order”
    • However they were to be unsuccessful
    • Faced discontent from both the left and the right
  • Most of the discontent was due to worsening economic conditions
    • The value of assignats had fallen down to 5% of its original value
    • 100 livres note “could now be exchanged for no more than fifteen sous” (20 sous = 1 livre)
threat from the left
Threat From the Left
  • François-Noël “Gracchus” Babeuf (1760-1797)
    • Supported many “communist” ideas
    • Wanted “perfect equality” among all the people of France including the abolition of private property and the equal distribution of food and goods to the population
    • Believed such change could only come about through violence
    • He created a new paper, Eclaireur du Peuple, ou le Défenseur de Vingt-Cinq Millions d'Opprimés
    • This paper reached thousands as it was sold on the streets of Paris
    • As the economic situation continued to worsen, more people were willing to listen to him
    • He was arrested and executed
threat from the right
Threat From the Right
  • In April 1797, elections were held for the two Councils
    • Conservatives and those against the Directory were able to gain a number of seats in both Councils
    • This meant that the councils now heavily favored moving back to the right
  • Turn towards conservatism
    • Council members debated whether or not to continue on with the republic as it was or go to a constitutional monarchy
    • Even two of the five Directors supported the idea of a constitutional monarchy
  • Radical Directors realized something had to be done
    • They turned to Napoléon for help
military successes
Military Successes
  • In 1795, both Spain and Prussia had already signed peace agreements with France
    • This ended their participation in the First Coalition
  • In the Vendée, the revolt was finally brought to an end in March 1796
    • Estimates ranged from 40,000 to 250,000 dead, out of a population of around 800,000
  • In the spring of 1796, Napoléon was placed in charge of the Army of Italy
    • He proceeded to push the Austrians out of northern Italy
    • His actions also allowed the local provinces to overthrown their old, and much hated, governments
military successes1
Military Successes
  • In October, Napoléon created the Cispadane Republic
    • This was made up of the provinces of Bologna, Ferrara, Modena, and Reggio Emilia
    • Its capital was located in Milan
    • The main purpose of the Republic was to help organize troops for a new offensive by the Austrians
  • With his successes, money poured into the French treasury
    • This made him even more popular with the masses
    • The Directory finally had enough money to help fix the economic situation
    • Part of this included the creation of the franc to replace assignats in February 1797
military successes2
Military Successes
  • On April 17, 1797, the Peace of Leoben was drafted
    • France received the Austrian Netherlands (Belgium) and all lands west of the Rhine River
    • Austria received the city of Venice which had been captured by Napoléon
  • The terms of the peace were not formalized until October 17, 1797 with the Treaty of Campo Formio
    • The delay was due to the domestic problems inside France at this time
    • The treaty marked the end of the First Coalition against France
  • The only major force against France at this point was Great Britain
    • Even they were suffering from the effects of the war and economic problems on top of it
political crisis of 1797
Political Crisis of 1797
  • As Napoléon was considered a national hero, the three Jacobin Directors turned to him for help
    • Wanted to overthrow the conservative Councils
    • Napoléon sent General Pierre-François-Charles Augereau along with a large contingent of troops to Paris
  • Coup d’État of 18 Fructidor IV (September 4, 1797)
    • Conservatives forcibly removed from their positions
  • Back to Jacobin-styled politics
    • Laws were enacted against émigrés and their families
    • Freedom of the press was terminated
    • Nonjuring priests were once again prosecuted
    • All of this was done to “protect” the Revolution
war in egypt
War in Egypt
  • Once Napoléon turned his attention to Great Britain
    • Knew that France was not prepared for a naval battle against Britain nor the proposed invasion of Britain
  • Turn to Egypt
    • Egypt was under the control of the Ottoman Turks
    • If he could take Egypt, he could threaten British trade to India
  • The British fleet trapped Napoléon’s forces in Egypt
    • At the Battle of the Nile, the British navy destroyed the French fleet and cut off the army’s supply lines
  • Napoléon’s expedition into Egypt angered many of France’s old enemies
    • Slowly, a Second Coalition was formed against France
war of the second coalition
War of the Second Coalition
  • By early 1799, France was at war with Great Britain, Austria and Russia
    • Russia joined as it had its own designs for the Middle East
  • Things did not go well for France
    • Russian troops invaded northern Italy
    • The Cisalpine Republic was destroyed
    • Austria began challenging the French in Germany as well
  • The Directory was forced to call a new levée en masse
    • Needed to provide enough troops for this new war
    • Riots broke out against the new draft
war of the second coalition1
War of the Second Coalition
  • Many in France were upset with the turn of events
    • Specifically with the ever growing number of military defeats
  • Government began supporting more radical ideas
    • Jacobin papers once again began circulating
    • Forced loans were enacted against the wealthy members of society
  • Not everyone was pleased with the new changes
    • Many were fearful of a return to the Terror
  • In May 1799, AbbéSieyès was appointed as Director
    • He warned against returning to the radical ideas and mob rule
    • He was more than willing to take necessary action to prevent this from occurring again
30 prairial vii
30 Prairial VII
  • Coup of 30 Prairial VII (June 18, 1799 )
    • Small bloodless coup took place in the ranks of the Directors
    • A motion began in the Councils to have the other two radical members of the Directory removed
    • Replaced with more moderate and politically unknown men
    • Directors Sieyès and Barras went along with this
  • By October, France was much more relaxed
    • The French army was successful at retaking Switzerland
    • Russia left the Coalition because it could not get along with Britain
    • The only place the military was not successful was in Egypt
    • Napoléon placed command of the army under one of his subordinates and secretly returned back to France
18 brumaire
18 Brumaire
  • Change to moderation
    • Sieyès and his followers hoped to use Napoléon to bring about a change in government
    • Wanted to prevent the radicals from again taking control
    • Wanted the Councils to put together a moderate commission to draft a new constitution
    • As part of this, Napoléon would place troops conveniently around the city in case force was necessary
  • Some Councilmen knew there was a plan for a coup
    • They began spreading rumors of a Jacobin conspiracy “to convert the two Councils into a national convention”
    • Hope was to create a panic
18 brumaire1
18 Brumaire
  • Events of 18 Brumaire VIII (November 9, 1799)
    • Councils were moved to Château de Saint-Cloud just outside of Paris for their safety
    • Later that day, three of Directors resigned (Sieyès, Barras, and Roger Ducos)
    • The other two refused; one was arrested but the other escaped
  • Some Councilmen suspected that there was no conspiracy and that there was a coup taking place
    • Instead they realized a coup was taking place
    • Began swearing an oath to uphold the Constitution of Year III
18 brumaire2
18 Brumaire
  • Napoléon tried to calm the Council of 500
    • They called him a “military dictator” who was destroying the Constitution
    • Napoléon responded with “The Constitution! You yourselves have destroyed it…It no longer has the respect of anyone.”
  • The councilors began calling for Napoléon’s arrest
    • His own men had to carry him out of the meeting hall to protect him from the councilors
  • Lucien Bonaparte was the President of the Council of 500
    • Told the Council that the ones calling for Napoléon’s arrest were armed and planning to assassinate Napoléon
    • When the troops found out about it, they marched into the Château and arrested the dissenting councilors
18 brumaire3
18 Brumaire
  • Following this, the members of the Council of Ancients who were left voted out the Directory
    • First they suspended both Councils for three months and then voted out the Constitution of Year III
    • They then appointed a Legislative Assembly to begin drafting a new Constitution
  • Until a new constitution could be drafted, three provisional consuls were appointed
    • They were Napoléon, Sieyès, and Roger Ducos
  • This marks the end of the Directory Period and the end of the French Revolution