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List of objectives • I-1 Identify supporting details • I-2 Determine sequence of events • I-3 Follow directions • II-1 Identify main ideas • II-2 Draw conclusions • II-3 Determine cause and effect • II-4 Detect propaganda. Distinguish fact from opinion. • II-5 Recognize summary statements • III-1 Recognize logic and arguments • III-2 Analyze literary elements • III-3 Distinguish understanding of figurative language and analogy • IV-1 Determine meaning of words • IV-2&3 Demonstrate the ability to preview & predict; discern organizational patterns • IV4 Demonstrate reference material usageA detailed version of these objectives
Sequencing events I-2 • Read the passage carefully and determine the order in which things happened in the passage. • Sometimes sequencing events must be done without reading a passage. In this case use logic to determine which event happened first. Often looking at transition words like “then”, “next”, and “after” can help.
Sequencing events • Sequence practice exercise
Summary Statements II-5 • A summary statement is one that summarizes the main idea(s) in a paragraph or essay. • A summary statement will frequently look like a thesis statement.
Summary Statements II-5 • I loved roller-skating when I was a kid. I could skate forwards, backwards, and do a few simple tricks. I usually spent every Friday night at the skating rink. Skating was probably my favorite thing to do! This kind of summary statement is also called a concluding sentence because it provides a solid stopping point for the paragraph and summarizes everything the paragraph was about.
Concluding sentence II-5 • The following paragraph illustrates this pattern of organization. In this paragraph the topic sentence and concluding sentence (CAPITALIZED) both help the reader keep the paragraph’s main point in mind. • SCIENTISTS HAVE LEARNED TO SUPPLEMENT THE SENSE OF SIGHT IN NUMEROUS WAYS. In front of the tiny pupil of the eye they put, on Mount Palomar, a great monocle 200 inches in diameter, and with it see 2000 times farther into the depths of space. Or they look through a small pair of lenses arranged as a microscope into a drop of water or blood, and magnify by as much as 2000 diameters the living creatures there, many of which are among man’s most dangerous enemies. Or, if we want to see distant happenings on earth, they use some of the previously wasted electromagnetic waves to carry television images which they re-create as light by whipping tiny crystals on a screen with electrons in a vacuum. Or they can bring happenings of long ago and far away as colored motion pictures, by arranging silver atoms and color-absorbing molecules to force light waves into the patterns of original reality. Or if we want to see into the center of a steel casting or the chest of an injured child, they send the information on a beam of penetrating short-wave X rays, and then convert it back into images we can see on a screen or photograph. THUS ALMOST EVERY TYPE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION YET DISCOVERED HAS BEEN USED TO EXTEND OUR SENSE OF SIGHT IN SOME WAY. George Harrison, “Faith and the Scientist”
Concluding Statements II-5 • A concluding sentence lets the reader know the paragraph is coming to a close. It restates the topic sentence in a different way and ties the paragraph together. • Humans have known that earthworms have been vital to enriching Earth's rich soil all throughout history. Egyptian Queen Cleopatra called earthworms sacred. The Greek philosopher Aristotle said earthworms were the intestines" of the soil. In 1881 Charles Darwin stated, "It may be doubted whether there are many other creatures which have played so important a part in the history of the world."Which sentence would make the best addition to the end of this paragraph?a) Could Earth support mankind without the earthworm?b) People throughout history have understood that earthworms are extremely important.c) Charles Darwin was a scientist.d) Aristotle was a Greek philosopher and scientist. • Earthworms may be divided into three categories. The Endogeic or soil dwellers live in the top foot of soil. The Epigeic or litter dwellers live on the decomposing plant material in wooded area. The third type is the Anecic or the deep burrowers. The Anecic worm lives several feet under the ground. They drag organic matter from the surface to their burrows. Which sentence would make the best conclusion to the end of this paragraph?a) These three types of worms have been given Greek names meaning "up from the earth", "within the earth", and "upon the earth".b) Earthworms live anywhere the climate is not too hot or too cold, or too wet or too dry.c) Earthworms vary greatly in size.d) During cold months worms become dormant or move to warmer locations such as the compost pile. • Have you ever bitten into a nice juicy apple only to find that a worm had already been there? The apple worm is really the caterpillar of the codling moth. The young hatch from eggs the size of pin heads and feast on apples for about a month. When the caterpillar is about a half-inch long it leaves the apple and spins a cocoon. After a month the adult moth emerges.Which sentence would make the best addition to the end of this paragraph?a) Apples are an extremely healthy food to eat.b) Moths and butterflies are different in several ways.c) Sometimes three generations of the codling moths may live in the orchard in just a year.d) The codling moth is a pesky varmint.
Concluding Statements II-5 • The codling moth is native to Europe. Settlers brought the moth to North America with apples in about 1750. The moth moved westward across the United States and finally reached California in 1874. The moth damages apples, pears and even English walnuts.Which sentence would make the best addition to the end of this paragraph?a) Several harmful insects have reached North America by transporting plants across the Atlantic Ocean.b) Farmers have lost millions of dollars in crops due to the codling moth.c) The only thing worse than biting into an apple and finding a worm, is biting into an apple and finding only half a worm.d) Moths are attracted to the light. • The symbol of the worm may be found in several figurative language phrases. When you are referring to a controversial issue you may say, "Don't open that can of worms." A person whom you do not respect may be called a worm. When you are in an awkward situation you may try to "worm your way out of it". One type of computer virus is known as a worm.Which sentence would make the best addition to the end of this paragraph?a) Americans use many figurative language phrases that do not have literal meanings.b) Once my computer was attacked by a worm that came through on an e-mail.c) On one television show I watched, the team had to try to figure out which person playing the game was the worm.d) In each of these phrases the word worm has a negative undertone.
Answers to summary statements • b • a • c • b • d
Topic Sentences, Details, and Concluding Statements I-1, II-2, II-5, • Find the topic sentence, supporting sentences, and concluding sentence in these paragraphs. • Winter • Winter is my favorite season because I like the clothes, the food and the activities. In the winter, I can wear a big coat and my favorite sweater. When it's cold, I can eat hot foods and soup. I can drink hot chocolate too. Best of all, in the winter I can do a lot of activities. I can play in the snow and make a snowman. I can go skiing, ice skating, or stay at home by the fireplace. That's why winter is my favorite season. • My Wonderful Sister • My sister Doris is very friendly, patient, and smart. She can make friends with anyone, because she is very funny. Doris is friendly to everyone, so she has a lot of friends. She is also very patient. She can help children, even when they are crying. If she has to wait at the grocery store, she doesn't get angry. She just starts to talk with the other customers. Another great thing about Doris is that she is smart. She studies a lot and gets good grades in school. She is also very good at solving problems. This is why Doris is a great sister. • American Food • American food is fast, cheap, and tasty. Some countries have food that takes a long time to make, but Americans like to eat food that is really fast, for example: hot dogs, hamburgers, and sandwiches. American food is not too expensive, if you work in the U.S. It is more expensive than in some countries and less expensive than in other countries, but I think it is pretty cheap. Some people don't like American food, but I think it tastes good. You can put ranch dressing on everything to make it taste delicious. If you are looking for food that is fast, cheap, and tasty, you should try American food. • Tests • I don't like tests. Every time I take a test, I feel nervous. When I study for a test, I don't know if I will be able to get a good grade. I worry a lot about the test, so I can't sleep. After the test is over, I worry about my grade. When my teacher gives me my grade, I can't relax because I know I will have another test soon. Tests give me a lot of stress. That's why I don't like tests.
Answers • In each paragraph #1 is the topic sentence. The last sentence is the concluding sentence. The others are details.
Topic Sentences, Details, and Concluding Statements • This paragraph is missing the topic sentence. Read the paragraph and choose the best topic sentence: • Cats • _____________________________________________________________________ • You don't have to take a cat for a walk every day like a dog. Cats also know how to clean themselves, so you don't have to wash them. If you want to go on vacation, you can leave some food for your cat and it will be okay. A cat can sleep on your bed and keep you warm at night. That is why cats are good pets. • A. Cats are very clean animals. • B. A cat is a good pet. • C. Cats and dogs are good for children. • This paragraph is missing the concluding sentence. Read the paragraph and choose the best conclusion. • Halloween • Halloween is a traditional American holiday. Americans celebrate it every year on October 31. Children dress in Halloween costumes and go trick-or-treating. Adults have parties and decorate their homes. The stores sell a lot of candy and things that are black and orange. People eat donuts and drink apple cider. They also carve pumpkins to make jack-o-lanterns. _______________________________________________ • A. Children love to eat candy on Halloween. • B. You can dress as a mummy, a witch, or a princess on Halloween. • C. These are the traditions of Halloween in America.
Answers • Cats- A • Halloween- C
Links to sites for Cause and Effect II-3 • Cause and Effect quiz • Another Quiz on Cause and Effect • Cause and Effect Linking Words • Cause and effect indicators • Cause and effect phrases
Determine Propaganda II-4 • Propaganda is any organized, widespread attempt to influence people's thinking or behavior. It may be considered good or bad, depending on the intentions of its originator, the way it is used, or the way an audience receives it. Some of the same techniques may be used for selling cereal, promoting a political candidate, or creating a scapegoat. The most effective propaganda appeals to the emotions of its audience instead of logic or reason. Some of the more common techniques of propaganda include: • Name-calling - attaching derogatory labels. • Glittering Generalities - using vague words or ideas to make something acceptable. • Transfer - associating a person or idea with something everyone thinks is good. • Testimonial - getting a well-known person to endorse another person, product or idea. • Plain folks, common man - candidates going out of their way to appear to be 'just like us.' • Card-stacking- showing only the good side of anything. • Bandwagon - convincing people that everyone else is doing the same thing. • Half-truths - using a germ of easily perceived truth makes the validity of the entire package more acceptable. • Loaded words - using words whose connotation is generally accepted by the audience as positive (or negative) in order to create a subconscious association. • Picture-perfect - creating a photograph or drawing which either literally or inferentially presents the desired image. • Self-appeal - selling an idea based on human desires for such things as safety, comfort, acceptability, pleasure, security, religious or philosophical ideals, health, personal appearance or beauty, sex appeal, or social status. • (From the following website- http://www.uen.org/Lessonplan/preview.cgi?LPid=1047 )
More on Propaganda • Buyers Beware • Thorough Propaganda Site
Logic And Argument III-1 • Beware of False Logic • Argumentative Writing
Figurative Language and Literary Elements III-2 &3 • Figurative Language • Detailed explanation of literary elements versus literary devices • Students must be able to analyze the literary elements such as plot, setting, characters, theme, etc. • A Graphic Organizer of Literary Elements • Cute practice exercise (While this is very elementary, the basic concepts are very applicable. Go through the entire module.)
Determine the Meaning of Words IV-1 • Information and embedded practice
Determine Organizational Pattern • Determine the organizational pattern of a passage, but not label the pattern. (Note: Organizational patterns may include chronological order, spatial order, order of importance, comparison and contrast, cause and effect, and main idea with examples or anecdotes.)
Preview Selection and Predict • Reading strategies to improve comprehension
Reading exercises • Reading comprehension practice Click on the link. Click on each story and answer the questions.
Using Reference Materials IV-4 • Try these links • Words to know to use a dictionary properly • How to use a dictionary • Guide word game • More Guide Words • Dictionary, Atlas, Almanac? • How to use an encyclopedia