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ROAD MAP TO READING

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  1. ROAD MAP TO READING MYRNA J. HIPOLITO Division Supervisor

  2. Road Map to Reading Remedial Reading Corrective Reading

  3. Road Map to Reading Developmental Reading Functional Reading Emergent Literacy Beginning Reading Recreatory Reading Critical Reading Remedial Reading Corrective Reading Preschool Grade I Grade II-III Grade IV

  4. FOUR MACRO SKILLS

  5. FOUR MACRO SKILLS

  6. FOUR MACRO SKILLS

  7. FOUR MACRO SKILLS

  8. Reading Chunks

  9. Reading Chunks

  10. Reading Chunks

  11. INSTRUCTIONAL FRAMEWORK Instructional Sequence Rationale To establish purpose, Activate background, Sustain motivation, and Provide direction Prereading Before reading During reading Reader-Text interactions To prompt an active response to reading To extend and elaborate Ideas from the text After reading Postreading

  12. Provide a context for the text – this arouses interest and assists comprehension by giving students some idea of what to expect. BEST WAYS OF EXPLORING THE TEXTS.

  13. Give students something to do while they read – something to look for, note down and be prepared to report upon. As well as signposts, this provides additional benefit of teaching students to read for a purpose. BEST WAYS OF EXPLORING THE TEXTS.

  14. Provide extensions/ expansions /explorations – Once the student have grasped the general idea of the passage, provide them further work to explore the language of the text for more details, creativity, critical thinking, possible outcome. BEST WAYS OF EXPLORING THE TEXTS.

  15. The procedure is actually quite simple. First, you arrange the items into different groups. Of course one file may be sufficient depending on how much there is to do. If you have to go somewhere else due to lack of facilities that is the next step; otherwise, you are pretty well set. It is important not to overdo things. That is, it is better to do a few things at once than many. In short run this may not seem important but complications can easily arise. The passage

  16. A mistake can be expensive as well. At first, the whole procedure will seem complicated, soon however, it will become just another facet of life. It is difficult to for see any end to the necessity for this task to the immediate future, but then, one never can tell. After the procedure is completed one arranges the materials into different groups again. Then they can be put into their appropriate places. Eventually they will be used once more and the whole cycle will have to be repeated. However, that is a part of life. The passage

  17. Good readers are always thinking. Good readers think about questions like the ones on this cart before reading. • I wonder what kind of story this is? A myth? A legend? A folk tale? A fable? A tall tale? A fantasy? Realistic fiction? A tale of adventure? • I wonder what this story is about? • Is there a summary about the story? What does it say? • I wonder if this story is like others I’ve read by this author. Thinking before reading stories

  18. I wonder if this story is exciting or boring? • I wonder what I can learn from reading this story. • I wonder if I can read most of the words easily. I flip look through the book to see. • I wonder how long it will take me to read this story? • Are there interesting illustrations in this book? • Will this story be a good one for the book report I have to do? Thinking before reading stories

  19. Think about this . . . . What are some other questions you ask yourself before reading stories? Do you ask yourself the same questions if you’ve already read or heard the story?

  20. Good readers always want to make certain that they understand what they are reading. They often do this by thinking about what they read and by asking themselves questions? Try these questions when you are reading stories. Thinking while reading about stories

  21. Who is the main character and what is his or her problem? What does the character want to happen? • I wonder what the character will do to solve the problem? • What situations or other characters will help him solve the problem? Thinking while reading about stories

  22. What situations or other characters might try to keep the main character from solving the problem? • What is this character like? What does the character do and say that helps me understand what he or she is like? • What words could I use to describe the way the character looks, acts and feels? Thinking while reading about stories

  23. Where does this story take place? Can I describe it or draw a picture of it? • The character is/is not doing what I thought he would do because … I wonder what he or she will do next? • I wonder how this story is going to end? I cant wait to get to the ending. Thinking while reading about stories

  24. Here are questions a reader might think about after reading a story: • Do I remember most of what happened in the story and why it happened? • Did this story turn out the way I thought it would? Why? Why not? • How would I have solved the problem differently? Thinking after reading stories

  25. What have I learned from this story? What does/did it mean to: Be brave? Be loyal? Be dedicated? Be poor? Live long ago in Spain? ____________ (Fill in the blank). • How is this story or characters like others? Thinking after reading stories

  26. I wonder if the library has other books by this author? • I seem to like stories like this. Why? • How can I share this story with my classmates and friends? Discussions? Book summary? An illustration? A book talk? • I wonder if I could write a story like this? Thinking after reading stories

  27. Find the animals hiding in the following sentences. Example: Close the door at once! (rat) That will be a real help. She came late every day. He came to America today. Eric owes me ten cents. We made errors in each one. Do good workers succeed? Hidden wordsAnimals in hiding

  28. 7. If I shout, he’ll hear me. 8. If Roger comes, we’ll begin. 9. We will go at two o’clock. 10. Is it the sixth or seventh? 11. In April I only came once. 12. I’ll sing; you hum on key. 13. I made a Xerox copy of it. 14. She clothes naked babies. 15. At last, I, Gerald, had won. Hidden words

  29. 16. Was Pilar mad, ill, or glad? 17. That man ate eleven cookies. 18. Your comb is on the table. 19. We’re sending only one book. 20. He regrets having said that. 21. If Al concentrates, he’ll win. 22. When I withdrew, Al rushed in. 23. He called Mikko a lazy boy. 24. It’s only a kilometer away. Hidden words

  30. GRADUAL PSYCHOLOGICAL UNFOLDING (GPU) What is GPU? • guiding principle in the framing of questions • gradual -easy to difficult • psychological- shows appreciation/, recognition/ elation/ satisfaction/ success Teaching strategies

  31. Q.1____________________ R.1 Q.2 (related to R .1) R.2 Q.3 (related to R.2 R.3 gpu

  32. DIMENSION ORDINARY ( D O) • questions grouped according to dimensions - literal - inferential ( inferences, conclusion, judgement) - critical ( reaction to author’s ideas ) - integrative Teaching strategies

  33. SENTENCE SENSE SENTENCES • complete comprehension of a sentence • use of dimension questions • grammar questions Teaching strategies

  34. The pupils planted seedlings of trees in their backyards yesterday. A. 1. Who planted trees? Answer:____________________ 2. What did they plant? a. seedlings of vegetables b. seedlings of plants c. seedlings of trees 3. Where did they plant? a. in their schoolyards b. in their backyards c. in their frontyards Sentence sense sentences

  35. 4. When did they plant? Answer:_____________________ 5. Whose backyards were planted with tree seedlings? Answer:______________________ B. 6. Why do you think did the pupils plant trees? a. Because each pupil is required to plant a tree b. Because everyone else is doing it. c. Because the pupils had nothing to do at that time. 7. At what time of the day do you think they planted? Sentence sense sentences

  36. a. early in the morning b. at noon c. late in the afternoon C. 8. In your own thinking, how will you describe the pupils? a. honest b. industrious c. obedient 9. Give your reason for your answer in number eight. Answer:_______________ D. 10. In the sentence, the word pupils tells a. where b. who c. when Sentence sense sentences

  37. visual strategy to extend pupils’ comprehension • help students think how the selection relates to their own experiences. • stimulates divergent thinking Steps to follow: • Draw a crescent in which the title of the selection is written. • Fill in the blanks with the selections major fact and information • Draw semantic webs. Fan technique or fact analyzer

  38. Provide two types of core question carefully. Pupil start to read the selection carefully. Teacher asks pupils to close their books. Teacher asks all-important fact they remember from the story of the passage Teachers discuss briefly all comments/results as shown in the fan. Write the core question. Elicit response represent both by material in the text and the predictions based in the text. Write core questions in the semantic web Elicit responses extending their experiences. Evaluate pupils reading comprehension by traditionally asking questions at different comprehension levels. Fan technique or fact analyzer

  39. Water When there are typhoons, there is too much water. In fact there is more water than we need.Rivers overflow and flood the nearby areas. Big floods destroy plants and properties. They leave many people dead and homeless so with animals. Not having enough water is also bad. Rice fields dry up. Animals like carabaos and cattles become sick and sometimes die of thirst. Rivers dry and fish die, too. People have learned to store water so that they will have water to use when they need it. Sometimes water is stored in tanks. The water is pumped into the tanks from the well. Rain water may also be stored in tanks. The water goes from the tanks to the houses through pipes. Sample material for fan technique

  40. On many farms, water is stored in ponds. Animals drink the water from the ponds. In other places dams are built across rivers or streams. A dam blocks the flow of water. The water fills up the stream higher and higher. A gate in the dam is opened to let out enough water needed. Some of the big dams we have in our country are Pantabangan, Ambuklao, and Binga. The water from these dams is used for irrigating fields and for producing lights. Sample material for fan technique

  41. Sample fan technique Effect of too much water Effect of lesser water Causes of Water pollution Prevention of water pollution water Water shortage WW What can cause water shortage How will water shortage affect life

  42. Steps: Choose a short story for modeling. Model the strategy. Pair the pupils off. Reconvene the class and ask the pupils to report what they thought of while reading and if it made sense. Go back to the original pairs and let them finish the story. Put the whole class together and have the pupils report how the thinking aloud proceeded. Ask the class these questions: Is the strategy good for understanding stories better? Do you want to repeat the strategy with other stories? Think aloud

  43. Steps: Divide the class into groups of three. Identify students in each group: A,B,C Provide text for reading Person A reads the paragraph/selection to the team; Person B summarizes what was read aloud Person B reads the next section and Person C retells or summarizes it to Person A… Repeat the rotation until all the assigned selection has been completed. Trio talk

  44. Have the groups discuss answers to these questions: a. What did you notice in the material read? b. Of what did the material remind you? c. How did the material make you feel? d. Write three questions relating to the most significant parts of the information? Trio talk

  45. used during and after the reading of the story • suitable for any grade whenever a plot is long or complicated How to use the Story Map? • The teacher should begin the Map with the class as a whole. Thereafter, each episode can be entered by small groups. Include only salient facts. • After one or two modelings, students should be able to do their own maps for stories. STORY MAP

  46. idealized internal representation of the parts of typical story and the relationship among those parts.(Mandler and Johnson) set of rules that will define both a text’s structure and an individual’s mental representation of story structure.(Gordon& Braun) Story grammar

  47. Six Major Elements (Mandler & Johnson) Setting-introduces the main character of the 1st episode, may include time, locale or props Beginning- precipitating events occur Reaction- the main character’s reaction to the beginning and his formation of a goal. Attempt- the planful effort to achieve a goal Outcome- the success or failure of the attempt Ending- the long-range consequence of the action, the final response of a story character or an emphatic statement Story Grammar

  48. an instructional approach • teacher works with a small group of children with similar reading behavior and can all read similar texts • Purpose is to make pupils focus on meaning but use problem-solving strategies to figure out new words, deal with difficult sentence structure and understand concepts or ideas they have never before encountered in print. • The ultimate goal is independent reading. guided reading

  49. Running Guided Reading Select a book Introduce the book Read the book Respond to the book and learn about reading Assess behavior guided reading

  50. Jigsaw reading