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  1. BR_MAIN Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading 1. Warm-up Questions 2. About the Author 3. Theoretical Physics and Theoretical Physicists 4. Japanese Tea Garden 5. San Francisco

  2. Before Reading_1_1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Warm-up Questions E=MC2 Explained by Michio Kaku ■

  3. Before Reading_1_2 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading • How does Michio Kaku explain Einstein’s E=MC2 ? • 2. When did Michio Kaku first become conscious of E=MC2 ? • Which movie (or book) played an important part during his childhood? • What was his goal of life at the age of ten? • 5. What’s your goal of life in childhood? E=MC2 is the secret of the stars. It is the cosmic engine that drives the entire universe. It means even if a few tablets of matter are fully burned, it can release the energy of atomic bomb. When he was in six grades. Our Friend: the Atom He wanted to be a theoretical physicist.

  4. Before Reading_2_1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading About the Author Michio Kaku (1947~ ): a well-known theoretical physicist Birth Born on January 24, 1947 in the United States 1. B.S. from Harvard University in 1968 2. PH.D. from the University of California, Berkeley in 1972 Education

  5. Before Reading_2_2 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Working Experiences 1. a lecturer at Princeton University in 1973 2. a professor in theoretical physics at City College of New York 3. a visiting professor at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton 4. a visiting professor at New York University

  6. Before Reading_2_3 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading His Works 1. Beyond Einstein 2. Visions 3. Hyperspace 4. Parallel Worlds

  7. Before Reading_3_1.1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Theoretical Physics and Theoretical Physicists 1. Theoretical Physics Department of Theoretical Physics Molecular Dynamics Reconection in a Magnetic Field

  8. Before Reading_3_1.2 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading What is theoretical physics? The description of natural phenomena in mathematical form. There are two main purposes of theoretical physics: the discovery of the fundamental laws of nature and the derivation of conclusions from these fundamental laws. ■

  9. Before Reading_3_1.2.1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Theoretical physicists refer to those who study theoretical physics, the description of natural phenomena in mathematical form. It is impossible to separate theoretical physics from experimental physics, since a complete understanding of nature can be obtained only by the application of both theory and experiment. There are two main purposes of theoretical physics: the discovery of the fundamental laws of nature and the derivation of conclusions from these fundamental laws.

  10. Before Reading_3_2.1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading 2. Some World-famous Theoretical Physicists (1) Who are they? Match the Letters in Column A with the names in Column B which you will hear in the passage. Column A Column B Albert Einstein Isaac Newton Stephen Hawking Galileo Galilei A. B. C. D.

  11. Before Reading_3_2.1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading 2. Some World-famous Theoretical Physicists (1) Who are they? Match the Letters in Column A with the names in Column B which you will hear in the passage. Column A Column B Albert Einstein Isaac Newton Stephen Hawking Galileo Galilei A. B. C. D.

  12. Before Reading_3_2.1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading 2. Some World-famous Theoretical Physicists (1) Who are they? Match the Letters in Column A with the names in Column B which you will hear in the passage. Column A Column B Albert Einstein Isaac Newton Stephen Hawking Galileo Galilei A. B. C. D.

  13. Before Reading_3_2.1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading 2. Some World-famous Theoretical Physicists (1) Who are they? Match the Letters in Column A with the names in Column B which you will hear in the passage. Column A Column B Albert Einstein Isaac Newton Stephen Hawking Galileo Galilei A. B. C. D.

  14. Before Reading_3_2.1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading 2. Some World-famous Theoretical Physicists (1) Who are they? Match the Letters in Column A with the names in Column B which you will hear in the passage. Column A Column B Albert Einstein Isaac Newton Stephen Hawking Galileo Galilei A. B. C. D.

  15. Before Reading_3_2.1.1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Galileo Galilei (1564-1642): Italian astronomer and physicist

  16. Before Reading_3_2.1.2 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Isaac Newton (1642-1727): English mathematician and scientist

  17. Before Reading_3_2.1.3 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Albert Einstein (1879-1955): German-born American theoretical physicist

  18. Before Reading_3_2.1.4 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Stephen Hawking (1942- ): English theoretical physicist

  19. Before Reading_3_2.1.5 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading A. B. C. D. He was an Italian astronomer and physicist. The first to use a telescope to study the stars, he was an outspoken advocate of Copernicus’s theory that the sun forms the center of the universe, which led to his persecution and imprisonment. English mathematician and scientist who invented differential calculus(微积分)and formulated the theory of universal gravitation, a theory about the nature of light, and three laws of motion. His treatise(专著)on gravitation was supposedly inspired by the sight of a falling apple. German-born American theoretical physicist whose special and general theories of relativity revolutionized modern thought on the nature of space and time and formed a theoretical base for the exploitation of atomic energy. He won a 1921 Nobel Prize for his explanation of the photoelectric(光电的)effect. He is an English theoretical physicist. He studied at the University of Oxford and later received his Ph.D. from Cambridge. He has worked primarily in the field of general relativity and particularly on the physics of black holes. ■

  20. Before Reading_3_2.2.1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading (2) Close-up of Albert Einstein Albert Einstein ■

  21. Before Reading_3_2.2.2 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading • What was the most important development in physics in the 20th century which • was most developed by Einstein? • When was the Special Theory of Relativity published? How old was Einstein then? • What are the three dimensions of geometry? What did Einstein add to the three dimensions? The Theory of Relativity. The Special Theory of Relativity was published in 1905 when Einstein was only 26. The three dimensions of geometry are length, width and height. Einstein added the fourth dimension of time.

  22. Before Reading_4 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Japanese Tea Garden The Japanese tea garden at in San Francisco is the oldest public Japanese garden in California. It was originally built as part of a sprawling World's Fair, the California Midwinter International Exposition from January to December in 1894. Notable as the oldest public Japanese garden in the United States, this complex of many paths, ponds and a teahouse features native Japanese and Chinese plants. Also hidden throughout its five acres (20,000 m²) are sculptures and bridges. These include the , the and with its small island in front of the Tea House. Golden Gate Park splendid Moon (Drum) Bridge Tea House the pond ■

  23. Before Reading_5.1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading San Francisco San Francisco The Golden Gate Bridge Gold Rush Chinatown

  24. Before Reading_5.2 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading San Francisco lies on the northern end of a peninsula(半岛) between the Pacific Ocean and San Francisco Bay. It has a population of 776,733. The Golden Gate Bridge spans the strait to the north that separates San Francisco from Marin county. Founded in the 18th century by the Spanish, it came under Mexican control after Mexican independence in 1821. Occupied by U.S. forces in 1846, it grew rapidly after the discovery of gold in nearby areas (see gold rush). San Francisco suffered extensive damage from the earthquake and fire in 1906 and from an earthquake in 1989. The city was prominent in the American cultural revolution in the 1960s. It is a commercial, cultural, educational, and financial centre and one of the country’s most cosmopolitan cities. Chinatown in San Francisco is famous world-wide.

  25. Globe Reading_main Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading 1. Part Division of the Text 2. Further Understanding For Part 1 Information for Some Key Words True or False For Part 2 Background for Some Key Words Questions and Answers

  26. Global Reading_1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Part Division of the Text Parts Lines Main Ideas Michio kaku recalls two crucial childhood experiences that set him on the path to be a theoretical physicist. 1 1~2 By watching carp swimming in their pond, Michio Kaku realizes that other dimensions or forces might exist of which we humans are unaware. 2 3~72 Einstein’s “unified field theory” inspires Michio Kaku to get to the root of it. 73~103 3

  27. Globe Reading_2.1.1.1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Information for Some Key Words Carp: Carp, hardy freshwater fish native to Asia but introduced into Europe, North America, and elsewhere. Many variations in color and form have developed. The carp lives alone or in small groups in quiet, weedy, mud-bottomed ponds, lakes, and rivers. In China, the popular saying, “The carp has leapt through the Dragon’s gate,” apparently is a statement of success or overcoming obstacles.

  28. Globe Reading_2.1.1.2 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Water lily: Water lily, common name for some members of the Nymphaeaceae, a family of freshwater perennial herbs characterized by large shield-shaped leaves and showy, fragrant blossoms of various colors. Among the plants of the family are the water lilies, lotuses, and pond lilies. In Chinese culture, it is a symbol of purity, fruitfulness and creative power.

  29. Globe Reading_2.1.2.1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading True or False • According to the author, the carp and human beings live in the same universe. • The author imagined that there might be carp “scientists” among the fish and that they would propose a parallel world could exist above their world. • To the carp, the water lilies would appear to be pushed by waves of water when raindrops fall on the pond’s surface. ( ) F According to the author, the carp and human beings live in two distinct universes. ( ) F The author imagined that there might be carp “scientists” among the fish and that they would laugh at any fish who proposed a parallel world could exist above their world. ( ) F To the carp, the water lilies would appear to be moving around by themselves when raindrops fall on the pond’s surface.

  30. Globe Reading_2.1.2.2 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading 4. The text indicates that there might be invisible vibrations that fill the empty space around us. 5. Most of the carp would be fascinated by the “scientist’s” description of his journey beyond their universe. ( ) T ( ) F Most of the carp would dismiss the “scientist’s” description as utter nonsense.

  31. Globe Reading_2.2.1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Background for Some Key Words 1. The Unified Field Theory 2. Atom 3. Galaxy 4. Higher Dimension

  32. Globe Reading_2.2.1.1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading The unified field theory is a physical theory that combines the treatment of two or more types of fields in order to deduce previously unrecognized interrelationships, especially such a theory unifying the theories of nuclear, electromagnetic, and gravitational forces. The term was coined by Einstein who attempted to reconcile the general theory of relativity with electromagnetism in a single field theory.

  33. Globe Reading_2.2.1.2 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading A unit of matter, the smallest unit of an element, having all the characteristics of that element and consisting of a dense, central, positively charged nucleus surrounded by a system of electrons. This unit regarded as a source of nuclear energy.

  34. Globe Reading_2.2.1.3 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading The Spiral Galaxy The Milky Way Any of the billions of systems of stars and interstellar matter that make up the universe. Galaxies vary considerably in size, composition, structure, and activity, but nearly all are arranged in groups, or clusters, containing from a few galaxies to as many as 10,000. Each is composed of millions to trillions of stars; in many, as in the Milky Way Galaxy, nebulae can be detected.

  35. Globe Reading_2.2.1.4 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading “The laws of nature become simpler and elegant when expressed in higher dimensions.” - Michio Kaku Higher dimension as a term in mathematics most commonly refers to any number of spatial dimensions greater than three. The three standard dimensions are length, width, and breadth (or height). The first higher dimension required is often time, and space-time is the most common example of a four-dimensional space.

  36. Globe Reading_2.2.2 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Questions and Answers • Who did his schoolteachers talk about with great reverence? What most intrigued him about this man? • What did the author learn about the unfinished papers on Einstein’s desk? What did he fail to understand as a child? • What does “this mystery” in the last paragraph refer to? Why did the author decide to try to get to the root of the mystery? Albert Einstein. What most intrigued him was that Einstein died before he could complete his greatest discovery. He learned that the unfinished papers were an attempt to construct what Einstein called the unified field theory. Being a child, he failed to understand that this unified field theory is what links the carp’s world with his boyhood one, and both with what lies beyond in the universe. “This mystery” refers to the unified field theory. Because it was far more exciting than any murder mystery and more important than anything he could ever imagine, he decided to get to the root of it.

  37. Article_S Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Idly watching fish swimming in a pond and allowing the mind to wander can lead to some surprising results.

  38. Article1_S Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading THE EDUCATION OF A PHYSICIST MICHIO KAKU Two incidents from my childhood greatly enriched my understanding of the world and sent me on a course to become a theoretical physicist. I remember that my parents would sometimes take me to visit the famous Japanese Tea Garden in San Francisco. One of my happiest childhood memories is of crouching next to the pond, fascinated by the brilliantly colored carp swimming slowly beneath the water lilies. In these quiet moments, I felt free to let my imagination wander; I would ask myself silly questions that only a child might ask, such as how the carp in that pond would view the world around them. I thought, What a strange world theirs must be!

  39. Article2_S Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Living their entire lives in the shallow pond, the carp would believe that their “universe” consisted of the dark water and the lilies. Spending most of their time moving around for food on the bottom of the pond, they would be only dimly aware that an alien world could exist above the surface. The nature of my world was beyond their comprehension. I was intrigued that I could sit only a few inches from the carp, yet be separated from them by a very huge gap. The carp and I spent our lives in two distinct universes, never entering each other’s world, yet were separated by only the thinnest barrier, the water’s surface. I once imagined that there may be carp “scientists” living among the fish. They would, I thought, laugh at any fish who proposed that a parallel world could exist just above the lilies. To a carp “scientist,” the only things that were real were what the fish could see or touch. The pond was everything. An unseen world beyond the pond made no scientific sense.

  40. Article3_S Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Once I was caught in a rainstorm. I noticed that the pond’s surface was bombarded by thousands of tiny raindrops. The pond’s surface became turbulent, and the water lilies were being pushed in all directions by water waves. Taking shelter from the wind and the rain, I wondered how all this appeared to the carp. To them, the water lilies would appear to be moving around by themselves, without anything pushing them.Since the water they lived in would appear invisible, much like the air and space around us, they would be baffled that the water lilies could move around by themselves. Their “scientists,” I imagined, would make up a clever invention called a “force” in order to hide their ignorance. Unable to comprehend that there could be waves on the unseen surface, they would conclude that lilies could move without being touched because a mysterious invisible entity called a force acted between them. They might give this illusion impressive, lofty names (such as action-at-a-distance, or the ability of the lilies to move without anything touching them).

  41. Article4_S Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Once I imagined what would happen if I reached down and lifted one of the carp “scientists” out of the pond. Before I threw him back into the water, he might struggle furiously as I examined him. I wondered how this would appear to the rest of the carp. To them, it would be a truly unsettling event. They would first notice that one of their “scientists” had disappeared from their universe. Simply vanished, without leaving a trace. Wherever they would look, there would be no evidence of the missing carp in their universe. Then, seconds later, when I threw him back into the pond, the “scientist” would abruptly reappear out of nowhere. To the other carp, it would appear that a miracle had happened. After collecting his wits, the “scientist” would tell a truly amazing story. “Without warning,” he would say, “I was somehow lifted out of the universe (the pond) and hurled into a mysterious world, with blinding lights and strangely shaped objects that I had never seen before. The strangest of all was the creature who

  42. Article5_S Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading held me prisoner, who did not resemble a fish in the slightest. I was shocked to see that it had no fins whatsoever, but nevertheless could move without them. It struck me that the familiar laws of nature no longer applied in this other world. Then, just as suddenly, I found myself thrown back into our universe.” (This story, of course, of a journey beyond the universe would be so fantastic that most of the carp would dismiss it as utter nonsense.) I often think that we are like the carp swimming contentedly in that pond. We live out our lives in our own “pond,” confident that our universe consists of only those things we can see or touch. Like the carp, our universe consists of only the familiar and the visible. We smugly refuse to admit that parallel universes or dimensions can exist next to ours, just beyond our grasp. If our scientists invent concepts like forces, it is only because they cannot visualize the invisible vibrations that fill the empty space around us.

  43. Article6_S Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading A second incident from my childhood also made a deep, lasting impression on me. When I was 8 years old, I heard a story that would stay with me for the rest of my life. I remember my schoolteachers telling the class about a great scientist who had just died. They talked about him with great reverence, calling him one of the greatest scientists in all history. They said that very few people could understand his ideas, but that his discoveries changed the entire world and everything around us. I didn’t understand much of what they were trying to tell us, but what most intrigued me about this man was that he died before he could complete his greatest discovery. They said he spent years on this theory, but he died with his unfinished papers still sitting on his desk.

  44. Article7_S Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading I was fascinated by the story. To a child, this was a great mystery. What was his unfinished work? What was in those papers on his desk? What problem could possibly be so difficult and so important that such a great scientist would dedicate years of his life to its pursuit? Curious, I decided to learn all I could about Albert Einstein and his unfinished theory. I still have warm memories of spending many quiet hours reading every book I could find about this great man and his theories. When I exhausted the books in our local library, I began to visit libraries and bookstores across the city, eagerly searching for more clues. I soon learned that the unfinished papers on Einstein’s desk were an attempt to construct what he called the unified field theory, a theory that could explain all the laws of nature, from the tiniest atom to

  45. Article8_S Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading the largest galaxy. However, being a child, I didn’tunderstand that perhaps there was a link between the carp swimming in the Tea Garden and the unfinished papers lying on Einstein’s desk. I didn’t understand that higher dimensions might be the key to solving the unified field theory. Nevertheless, I could see that this story was far more exciting than any murder mystery and more important than anything I could ever imagine.I decided that I would try to get to the root of this mystery, even if I had to become a theoretical physicist to do it.

  46. Article1_W Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading THE EDUCATION OF A PHYSICIST MICHIO KAKU Two incidents from my childhood greatly enriched my understanding of the world and sent me on a course to become a theoretical physicist. I remember that my parents would sometimes take me to visit the famous Japanese Tea Garden in San Francisco. One of my happiest childhood memories is of crouching next to the pond, fascinated by the brilliantly colored carp swimming slowly beneath the water lilies. In these quiet moments, I felt free to let my imagination wander; I would ask myself silly questions that only a child might ask, such as how the carp in that pond would view the world around them. I thought, What a strange world theirs must be!

  47. Article2_W Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Living their entire lives in the shallow pond, the carp would believe that their “universe” consisted of the dark water and the lilies. Spending most of their time moving around for food on the bottom of the pond, they would be only dimly aware that an alien world could exist above the surface. The nature of my world was beyond their comprehension. I was intrigued that I could sit only a few inches from the carp, yet be separated from them by a very huge gap. The carp and I spent our lives in two distinct universes, never entering each other’s world, yet were separated by only the thinnest barrier, the water’s surface. I once imagined that there may be carp “scientists” living among the fish. They would, I thought, laugh at any fish who proposed that a parallel world could exist just above the lilies. To a carp “scientist,” the only things that were real were what the fish could see or touch. The pond was everything. An unseen world beyond the pond made no scientific sense.

  48. Article3_W Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Once I was caught in a rainstorm. I noticed that the pond’s surface was bombarded by thousands of tiny raindrops. The pond’s surface became turbulent, and the water lilies were being pushed in all directions by water waves. Taking shelter from the wind and the rain, I wondered how all this appeared to the carp. To them, the water lilies would appear to be moving around by themselves, without anything pushing them. Since the water they lived in would appear invisible, much like the air and space around us, they would be baffled that the water lilies could move around by themselves. Their “scientists,” I imagined, would make up a clever invention called a “force” in order to hide their ignorance. Unable to comprehend that there could be waves on the unseen surface, they would conclude that lilies could move without being touched because a mysterious invisible entity called a force acted between them. They might give this illusion impressive, lofty names (such as action-at-a-distance, or the ability of the lilies to move without anything touching them).

  49. Article4_W Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Once I imagined what would happen if I reached down and lifted one of the carp “scientists” out of the pond. Before I threw him back into the water, he might struggle furiously as I examined him. I wondered how this would appear to the rest of the carp. To them, it would be a truly unsettling event. They would first notice that one of their “scientists” had disappeared from their universe. Simply vanished, without leaving a trace. Wherever they would look, there would be no evidence of the missing carp in their universe. Then, seconds later, when I threw him back into the pond, the “scientist” would abruptly reappear out of nowhere. To the other carp, it would appear that a miracle had happened. After collecting his wits, the “scientist” would tell a truly amazing story. “Without warning,” he would say, “I was somehow lifted out of the universe (the pond) and hurled into a mysterious world, with blinding lights and strangely shaped objects that I had never seen before. The strangest of all was the creature who

  50. Article5_W Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading held me prisoner, who did not resemble a fish in the slightest. I was shocked to see that it had no fins whatsoever, but nevertheless could move without them. It struck me that the familiar laws of nature no longer applied in this other world. Then, just as suddenly, I found myself thrown back into our universe.” (This story, of course, of a journey beyond the universe would be so fantastic that most of the carp would dismiss it as utter nonsense.) I often think that we are like the carp swimming contentedly in that pond. We live out our lives in our own “pond,” confident that our universe consists of only those things we can see or touch. Like the carp, our universe consists of only the familiar and the visible. We smugly refuse to admit that parallel universes or dimensions can exist next to ours, just beyond our grasp. If our scientists invent concepts like forces, it is only because they cannot visualize the invisible vibrations that fill the empty space around us.