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  1. BR_MAIN Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading 1. Word Web 2. Warm-up Exercises 3. A Quiz 4. An English Song 5. Background Information Deer Energy Crisis Ecological System (Ecosystem)

  2. Before Reading_1_1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Word Web Directions: What words will occur to you whenever we mention the word “energy”? Write down as many words as possible about it. conservation of energy energy crisis energy resources heat nuclear energy solar energy ENERGY atomic energy wind oil gas coal

  3. Before Reading_2_1.1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Warm-up Exercises Directions: Watch the video and write down the kinds of energy mentioned. solar, chemical Tips: , wind, fossil, flowing water reaction, nuclear ■ MICRO-HYDRO: Small-scale systems tap the energy of flowing water. These are not to be confused with big dam projects which totally transform ecosystems, wreaking environmental havoc.

  4. Before Reading_2_1.2 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading WINDPOWER : An ancient source undergoing a revival with modern turbine technology FOSSIL FUELS : Derived from long-dead organic and animal matter. Oil, coal, and natural gas are all fossil fuels.

  5. Before Reading_2_1.3 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading SOLAR ENERGY: The sun’s power can be harnessed in various ways: by using photovoltaic cells to generate electricity directly; by using thermal collectors to make steam to generate electricity; by using passive solar materials that maximize or retain the sun’s heat. Biomass is vegetal or organic material - including dung and plants - and biofuels are the solid or liquid or gaseous fuels that derive from it. Wood, methane and alcohol are all biofuels. BIOMASS:

  6. Before Reading_2_1.4 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading NUCLEAR ENERGY: Currently produced by ”fission”. An atom is split - using uranium - and the heat produced drives steam turbines to generate electricity.

  7. Before Reading_3_1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading A Quiz Directions: Give each item in the quiz a number from 1 to 5, and add up the numbers from the quiz to see How “Green” You Are? 1=always 2=often 3=sometimes 4=hardly ever 5=never Do you ...? ( ) 1. avoid throwing things away if they can be reused, repaired or recycled ( ) 2. use recycled paper ( ) 3. recycle paper, glass, and cans ( ) 4. avoid products from nonrenewable sources ( ) 5. avoid buying overpackaged products ( ) 6. walk or use a bike when traveling short distances ( ) 7. use public transportation when traveling long distances ( ) 8. avoid using air-conditioning in the summer ( ) 9. try to make sure the heat isn’t turned up too high in the winter ( )10. use low-energy lightbulbs ( )11. turn off the lights when you leave a room ( )12. avoid using more water than you need

  8. Before Reading_3_2 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Tips: The interpretation of your quiz score is: 12-23 24-35 36-47 48-60

  9. Before Reading_4_1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading An English Song Directions: Listen to the song and fill in the blanks. Green, Green Grass of Home The old home town looks the same, As I from the train. And there to meet me is my mamma and my papa. Down the road I look, and there runs Mary, Hair of gold and lips like , It’s good to touch the . Yes, they’ll all come to meet me, Arms a-reachin’, , It’s good to touch the green, green grass of home. ■ ________ step down _______ cherries _______________________ green, green grass of home _____________ smiling sweetly

  10. Before Reading_4_2 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading The old house is still standing, Though the paint is . And there's that old oak tree, That I used to play on. I’ll walk with my sweet Mary, Hair of gold and lips like cherries. It’s good to touch the green, green grass of home. Then I around me, At the four gray walls that surround me, And I realize. Yes I was , For there’s a guard and there’s a sad old padre, we’ll walk at daybreak, Again I’ll touch the green, green grass of home. Yes they’ll all come to see me that old oak tree, As they lay me meet the green, green grass of home. _____________ cracked and dry ____________ Down the lane _____________ awake and look _____________ only dreaming __________ Arm in arm ____________ in the shade of

  11. KEY Before Reading_5_1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Background Information 1. Deer Directions: Listen to the following passage,write down the words you think important, then retell the story according to what you’ve heard. There are about 100 different kinds of deer. Some live in grasslands. Others live in forests. The female deer becomes pregnant annually in late autumn, producing one to three young in late spring or early summer. The normal lifespan is 15 to 20 years. ■

  12. Before Reading_5_2 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading 2. Energy Crisis Directions: Listen to the following passage,write down the words you’ve heard. ________ Energy crisis refers to a critical in the supply of energy-producing fuels, such as gas, oil, and . During the early 1970’s, the demand for petroleum increased, and Western countries depended heavily on imported . The situation became worse during the Arab-Israeli War of 1973, when the Arab nations to the United States and other countries that Israel, causing an acute energy shortage in these countries during the winter of 1973 to 1974. shortage _____ coal _______ sharply _______ supplies _______ reduced oil production and embargoed oil shipments ________ supported ■

  13. Before Reading_5_3 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading 3. Ecological System (Ecosystem) Directions: Read the following passage and fill in the blanks with the help of the words given below. • effects ecosystem harmful insects • natural enemies factors drive away farmland lake multiply A system is made up of a group of living organisms and their physical environment, and the relationship between them. A pond, a , a forest or an ocean may be an . An ecosystem includes such as food supply, weather and . Any change in environment has far-reaching on living things. The clearing of a forest, for example, may birds and affect drainage (排水). Without birds to keep under control, the insects and may do serious damage to crops. Without trees to hold back rain water, erosion may set in and ruin . ____ lake _________ ecosystem _______ factors _____________ natural enemies ______ effects _________ drive away _______ _____________ multiply harmful insects ________ farmland

  14. Globe Reading_main Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading 1. Scanning 2. Part Division of the Text 3. Further Understanding For Part 1 Blank Filling For Part 2 Questions and Answers For Part 3 Questions and Answers

  15. Globe Reading_1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Scanning Directions: Scan the text and discuss in pairs, list the facts about the life of deer in four seasons. 1. Summer: eat as much as they can, storing the excess in the form of fat; active in growing, reproducing or storing fat adult males: grow antlers and get fat adult females: give birth to young; produce milk fawns: become less dependent on their mother’s milk andbegin to search for growing plants as food 2. Fall: continue to eat high quality food in order to deposit fat for the winter 3. Winter: reduce their activity, grow a winter coat of hair, and lower their metabolism; use the reserves of fat to survive the cold winter 4. Spring: become active again

  16. Global Reading_2 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Part Division of the Text Parts Lines Main Ideas It is energy, not love or money, that makes the world go round. 1 1~6 2 Take the deer as an example to explain the life of wild animals round the year and how they can survive during the hard times in winter. 7~70 Life depends on energy, thus the cycle continues. 71~74 3

  17. Globe Reading_3.1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Blank Filling Directions: Read the first part of the text carefully, then fill in the blanks. go round ________ Some persons say that love makes the world . Others of a less romantic and more practical say that it isn’t love; it’s money. But the truth is that it is that makes the world go round. Energy is the of the ecological system and life becomes possible only when food is energy, which is used to seek more food to grow, to reproduce and to survive. On this cycle all life __________ turn of mind ______ energy currency _______ ____________ ______ converted into in turn ________. depends

  18. Globe Reading_3.2.2 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Questions and Answers 1. How do wild animals survive the hard times in winter? They eat as much as they can during times of plenty, the summer and the fall, storing the excess, usually in the form of fat, and then using these reserves of fat to survive during the hard times in winter when food is scarce. 2. What is the best time for milk production? The best milk production occurs at the same time that new plant growth is available. 3. What is the use of fat deer accumulate in summer and fall? Fat reserves are like bank accounts to be drawn on in the winter when food supplies are limited and sometimes are difficult to reach because of deep snow. 4. What changes take place in deer when winter draws near? Fawns lose their spotted coat. Hair on all the deer becomes darker and thicker.

  19. Globe Reading_3.2.3 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading 5. What further safeguard does nature provide to help deer survive the winter? They have an internal physiological response which lowers their metabolism, or rate of bodily functioning, and hence slows down their expenditure of energy. 6. What changes take place in deer’s behavior when they lower their metabolism? Their behavior changes from more activities in summer and fall to less as winter progresses. 7. What will happen to deer if deep snows come and the weather remains cold for a long time? Some will die. 8. What is the fundamental rule of life for wild, free wandering animals? Only the largest and strongest are likely to survive - the survival of the fittest.

  20. Globe Reading_3.3 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Questions and Answers What conclusion does the author supply? Life depends on energy, and thus the cycle continues.

  21. Article_S Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Is there anything we can learn from deer? During the “energy crisis” of 1973-1974 the writer of this essay was living in northern Minnesota and was able to observe how deer survive when winter arrives. The lessons he learns about the way deer conserve energy turn out applicable to our everyday life.

  22. Article1_S Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Deer and the Energy Cycle Aaron N. Moen Some persons say that love makes the world go round. Others of a less romantic and more practical turn of mind say that it isn’t love; it’s money. But the truth is that it is energy that makes the world go round. Energy is the currency of the ecological system and life becomes possible only when food is converted into energy, which in turn is used to seek more food to grow, to reproduce and to survive. On this cycle all life depends. It is fairly well known that wild animals survive from year to year by eating as much as they can during times of plenty, the summer and fall, storing the excess, usually in the form of fat, and then using these reserves of fat to survive during the hard times in winter when food is scarce. But, it is probably less well known

  23. Article2_S Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading that even with their stored fat, wild animals spend less energy to live in winter than in summer. A good case in point is the white-tailed deer. Like most wildlife, deer reproduce, grow, and store fat in the summer and fall when there is plenty of nutritious food available. A physically mature female deer in good condition who has conceived in November and given birth to two fawns during the end of May or first part of June, must search for food for the necessary energy not only to meet her body’s needs but also to produce milk for her fawns. The best milk production occurs at the same time that new plant growth is available. This is good timing, because milk production is an energy consuming process — it requires a lot of food. The cost can not be met unless the region has ample food resources.

  24. Article3_S Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading As the summer progresses and the fawns grow, they become less dependent on their mother’s milk and more dependent on growing plants as food sources. The adult males spend the summer growing antlers and getting fat. Both males and females continue to eat high quality food in the fall in order to deposit body fat for the winter.In the case of does and fawns, a great deal of energy is expended either in milk production or in growing, and fat is not accumulated as quickly as it is in full grown males. Fat reserves are like bank accounts to be drawn on in the winter when food supplies are limited and sometimes difficult to reach because of deep snow. As fall turns into winter, other changes take place. Fawns lose their spotted coat. Hair on all the deer becomes darker and thicker. The change in the hair coats is usually complete by September and maximum hair depths are reached by November or December when the weather becomes cold.

  25. Article4_S Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading But in addition, nature provides a further safeguard to help deer survive the winter — an internal physiological response which lowers their metabolism, or rate of bodily functioning, and hence slows down their expenditure of energy. The deer become somewhat slow and drowsy. The heart rate drops. Animals that hibernate practice energy conservation to a greater extreme than deer do. Although deer don’t hibernate, they do the same thing with their seasonal rhythms in metabolism. Deer spend more energy and store fat in the summer and fall when food is abundant, and spend less energy and use stored fat in the winter when food is less available. When the “energy crisis” first came in 1973-1974, I was living with my family in a cabin on the edge of an area where deer spend the winter in northern Minnesota, observing the deer as their behavior changed from more activity in summer and fall to less as winter progressed, followed by an increaseagain

  26. Article5_S Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading in the spring as the snow melted. It was interesting and rather amusing to listen to the advice given on the radio: “Drive only when necessary,” we were told. “Put on more clothes to stay warm, and turn the thermostat on your furnace down.” Meanwhile we watched the deer reduce their activity, grow a winter coat of hair, and reduce their metabolism as they have for thousands of years. It is biologically reasonable for deer to reduce their cost of living to increase their chances of surviving in winter. Not every winter is critical for deer of course. If the winter has light snow, survival and productivity next spring will be high. But if deep snows come and the weather remains cold for several weeks, then the deer must spend more energy to move about, food will be harder to find, and they must then depend more on their fat reserves to pull them through. If such conditions go on for too long some will die, and only the largest and strongest are likely to survive. That is a fundamental rule of life for wild, free wandering animals such as deer.

  27. Article6 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Yes, life — and death, too — is a cycle that goes round and round, and when animals die their bodies become food for other life forms to use by converting them into energy. And the cycle continues.

  28. Article1_W Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Deer and the Energy Cycle Aaron N. Moen Some persons say that love makes the world go round. Others of a less romantic and more practical turn of mind say that it isn’t love; it’s money. But the truth is that it is energy that makes the world go round. Energy is the currency of the ecological system and life becomes possible only when food is converted into energy, which in turn is used to seek more food to grow, to reproduce and to survive. On this cycle all life depends. It is fairly well known that wild animals survive from year to year by eating as much as they can during times of plenty, the summer and fall, storing the excess, usually in the form of fat, and then using these reserves of fat to survive during the hard times in winter when food is scarce. But, it is probably less well known

  29. Article2_W Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading that even with their stored fat, wild animals spend less energy to live in winter than in summer. A good case in point is the white-tailed deer. Like most wildlife, deer reproduce, grow, and store fat in the summer and fall when there is plenty of nutritious food available. A physically mature female deer in good condition who has conceived in November and given birth to two fawns during the end of May or first part of June, must search for food for the necessary energy not only to meet her body’s needs but also to produce milk for her fawns. The best milk production occurs at the same time that new plant growth is available. This is good timing, because milk production is an energy consuming process — it requires a lot of food. The cost can not be met unless the region has ample food resources.

  30. Article3_W Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading As the summer progresses and the fawns grow, they become less dependent on their mother’s milk and more dependent on growing plants as food sources. The adult males spend the summer growing antlers and getting fat. Both males and females continue to eat high quality food in the fall in order to deposit body fat for the winter. In the case of does and fawns, a great deal of energy is expended either in milk production or in growing, and fat is not accumulated as quickly as it is in full grown males. Fat reserves are like bank accounts to be drawn on in the winter when food supplies are limited and sometimes difficult to reach because of deep snow. As fall turns into winter, other changes take place. Fawns lose their spotted coat. Hair on all the deer becomes darker and thicker. The change in the hair coats is usually complete by September and maximum hair depths are reached by November or December when the weather becomes cold.

  31. Article4_W Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading But in addition, nature provides a further safeguard to help deer survive the winter — an internal physiological response which lowers their metabolism, or rate of bodily functioning, and hence slows down their expenditure of energy. The deer become somewhat slow and drowsy. The heart rate drops. Animals that hibernate practice energy conservation to a greater extreme than deer do. Although deer don’t hibernate, they do the same thing with their seasonal rhythms in metabolism. Deer spend more energy and store fat in the summer and fall when food is abundant, and spend less energy and use stored fat in the winter when food is less available. When the “energy crisis” first came in 1973-1974, I was living with my family in a cabin on the edge of an area where deer spend the winter in northern Minnesota, observing the deer as their behavior changed from more activity in summer and fall to less as winter progressed, followed by an increaseagain

  32. Article5_W Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading in the spring as the snow melted. It was interesting and rather amusing to listen to the advice given on the radio: “Drive only when necessary,” we were told. “Put on more clothes to stay warm, and turn the thermostat on your furnace down.” Meanwhile we watched the deer reduce their activity, grow a winter coat of hair, and reduce their metabolism as they have for thousands of years. It is biologically reasonable for deer to reduce their cost of living to increase their chances of surviving in winter. Not every winter is critical for deer of course. If the winter has light snow, survival and productivity next spring will be high. But if deep snows come and the weather remains cold for several weeks, then the deer must spend more energy to move about, food will be harder to find, and they must then depend more on their fat reserves to pull them through. If such conditions go on for too long some will die, and only the largest and strongest are likely to survive. That is a fundamental rule of life for wild, free wandering animals such as deer.

  33. Article1_S_pop_Others of… Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Deer and the Energy Cycle Aaron N. Moen 1. What does the sentence mean? Other people who are more practical say that it is money not love that makes the world go around. Some persons say that love makes the world go round. Others of a less romantic and more practical turn of mind say that it isn’t love; it’s money. But the truth is that it is energy that makes the world go round. Energy is the currency of the ecological system and life becomes possible only when food is converted into energy, which in turn is used to seek more food to grow, to reproduce and to survive. On this cycle all life depends. 2. Translate the sentence into Chinese. 另一些并不那么罗曼蒂克而更为注重实际的人则说,不是爱情,而是金钱。 It is fairly well known that wild animals survive from year to year by eating as much as they can during times of plenty, the summer and fall, storing the excess, usually in the form of fat, and then using these reserves of fat to survive during the hard times in winter when food is scarce. But, it is probably less well known

  34. Article1_S_pop_Energy… Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Deer and the Energy Cycle Aaron N. Moen Translate the sentence into Chinese. 能量是生态系统的货币,只有当食物转变为能量,能量再用来获取更多的食物以供生长、繁殖和生存,生命才成为可能。 Some persons say that love makes the world go round. Others of a less romantic and more practical turn of mind say that it isn’t love; it’s money. But the truth is that it is energy that makes the world go round. Energy is the currency of the ecological system and life becomes possible only when food is converted into energy, which in turn is used to seek more food to grow, to reproduce and to survive. On this cycle all life depends. It is fairly well known that wild animals survive from year to year by eating as much as they can during times of plenty, the summer and fall, storing the excess, usually in the form of fat, and then using these reserves of fat to survive during the hard times in winter when food is scarce. But, it is probably less well known

  35. Article1_S_pop_It is … Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Deer and the Energy Cycle Aaron N. Moen 1. What does “the time of plenty” mean? When there are plenty of food supply, such as summer and fall. Some persons say that love makes the world go round. Others of a less romantic and more practical turn of mind say that it isn’t love; it’s money. But the truth is that it is energy that makes the world go round. Energy is the currency of the ecological system and life becomes possible only when food is converted into energy, which in turn is used to seek more food to grow, to reproduce and to survive. On this cycle all life depends. 2. What is the grammatical function of “eating …, storing …, and then using …” ? They are paralleled phrases used as objects of preposition “by”. 3. Translate the sentence into Chinese. 差不多众所周知,野生动物得以年复一年地生存下去,主要依靠在夏秋生长旺季尽量多吃,将多余的部分以脂肪的形式储存起来,然后到了冬天食物稀少的艰难时期,就用这些储备的脂肪来维持生命。 It is fairly well known that wild animals survive from year to year by eating as much as they can during times of plenty, the summer and fall, storing the excess, usually in the form of fat, and then using these reserves of fat to survive during the hard times in winter when food is scarce. But, it is probably less well known

  36. Article2_S_pop_A good… Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading that even with their stored fat, wild animals spend less energy to live in winter than in summer. Paraphrase this sentence. A good example of what is being talked about is the white-tailed deer. A good case in point is the white-tailed deer. Like most wildlife, deer reproduce, grow, and store fat in the summer and fall when there is plenty of nutritious food available. A physically mature female deer in good condition who has conceived in November and given birth to two fawns during the end of May or first part of June, must search for food for the necessary energy not only to meet her body’s needs but also to produce milk for her fawns. The best milk production occurs at the same time that new plant growth is available. This is good timing, because milk production is an energy consuming process — it requires a lot of food. The cost can not be met unless the region has ample food resources.

  37. Article2_S_pop_A physically … Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading that even with their stored fat, wild animals spend less energy to live in winter than in summer. • What does “a physically mature female deer in good condition” • mean in this sentence? It refers to a healthy and adult or fully-grown deer. A good case in point is the white-tailed deer. Like most wildlife, deer reproduce, grow, and store fat in the summer and fall when there is plenty of nutritious food available. A physically mature female deer in good condition who has conceived in November and given birth to two fawns during the end of May or first part of June, must search for food for the necessary energy not only to meet her body’s needs but also to produce milk for her fawns. The best milk production 2. What is the grammatical function of “not only to … but also to …”? These two infinitive phrases are used as adverbials of purpose. 3. Translate the sentence into Chinese. 一只成熟健壮的母鹿,在十一月份怀胎,五月底或六月初生下两只幼鹿,这时,它必须寻找食物以获得必要的能量,这不仅是为了满足自身的需要,而且也是为了给幼鹿生产乳汁。 occurs at the same time that new plant growth is available. This is good timing, because milk production is an energy consuming process — it requires a lot of food. The cost can not be met unless the region has ample food resources.

  38. Article2_S_pop_This is… Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading that even with their stored fat, wild animals spend less energy to live in winter than in summer. Paraphrase this sentence. It is well-chosen time, because producing milk is a process of using up energy and it also needs a lot of food. A good case in point is the white-tailed deer. Like most wildlife, deer reproduce, grow, and store fat in the summer and fall when there is plenty of nutritious food available. A physically mature female deer in good condition who has conceived in November and given birth to two fawns during the end of May or first part of June, must search for food for the necessary energy not only to meet her body’s needs but also to produce milk for her fawns. The best milk production occurs at the same time that new plant growth is available. This is good timing, because milk production is an energy consuming process — it requires a lot of food. The cost can not be met unless the region has ample food resources.

  39. Article3_S_pop_Both males… Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading As the summer progresses and the fawns grow, they become less dependent on their mother’s milk and more dependent on growing plants as food sources. The adult males spend the summer growing antlers and getting fat. Both males and females continue to eat high quality food in the fall in order to deposit body fat for the winter.In the case of does and fawns, a great deal of energy is expended either in milk production or in growing, and fat is not accumulated as quickly as it is in full grown males. Fat reserves are like bank accounts to be drawn on in the winter when food supplies are limited and sometimes difficult to reach because of deep snow. 1. What does “high quality food” refer to? “High quality food” here refers to nutritious food - food containing many of the substances needed for life and growth. 2. Translate the sentence into Chinese. 在秋天,雄鹿和雌鹿都继续进食高质量食物,贮存体内脂肪,以备过冬。 As fall turns into winter, other changes take place. Fawns lose their spotted coat. Hair on all the deer becomes darker and thicker. The change in the hair coats is usually complete by September and maximum hair depths are reached by November or December when the weather becomes cold.

  40. Article3_S_pop_In the case… Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading As the summer progresses and the fawns grow, they become less dependent on their mother’s milk and more dependent on growing plants as food sources. The adult males spend the summer growing antlers and getting fat. Both males and females continue to eat high quality food in the fall in order to deposit body fat for the winter.In the case of does and fawns, a great deal of energy is expended either in milk production or in growing, and fat is not accumulated as quickly as it is in full grown males. Fat reserves are like bank accounts to be drawn on in the winter when food supplies are limited and sometimes difficult to reach because of deep snow. Can you use another phrase to say “in the case of”? When we talk about / In terms of does and fawns … As fall turns into winter, other changes take place. Fawns lose their spotted coat. Hair on all the deer becomes darker and thicker. The change in the hair coats is usually complete by September and maximum hair depths are reached by November or December when the weather becomes cold.

  41. Article3_S_pop_The change… Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading As the summer progresses and the fawns grow, they become less dependent on their mother’s milk and more dependent on growing plants as food sources. The adult males spend the summer growing antlers and getting fat. Both males and females continue to eat high quality food in the fall in order to deposit body fat for the winter.In the case of does and fawns, a great deal of energy is expended either in milk production or in growing, and fat is not accumulated as quickly as it is in full grown males. Fat reserves are like bank accounts to be drawn on in the winter when food supplies are limited and sometimes difficult to reach because of deep snow. 1. Why is it so? Hair becomes the longest and thickest by November and December so as to protect them from the coldness of the winter. 2. Translate the sentence into Chinese. 毛皮的变化通常持续到九月。到十一月或十二月天气变冷时,毛长得最厚。 As fall turns into winter, other changes take place. Fawns lose their spotted coat. Hair on all the deer becomes darker and thicker. The change in the hair coats is usually complete by September and maximum hair depths are reached by November or December when the weather becomes cold.

  42. Article4_S_pop_But in addition … Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading But in addition, nature provides a further safeguard to help deer survive the winter — an internal physiological response which lowers their metabolism, or rate of bodily functioning, and hence slows down their expenditure of energy. The deer become somewhat slow and drowsy. The heart rate drops. Animals that hibernate practice energy conservation to a greater extreme than deer do. Although deer don’t hibernate, they do the same thing with their seasonal rhythms in metabolism. Deer spend more energy and store fat in the summer and fall when food is abundant, and spend less energy and use stored fat in the winter when food is less available. What is the meaning of this sentence? Deer have another natural means of protection against the threat of the cold winter. When the “energy crisis” first came in 1973-1974, I was living with my family in a cabin on the edge of an area where deer spend the winter in northern Minnesota, observing the deer as their behavior changed from more activity in summer and fall to less as winter progressed, followed by an increaseagain

  43. Article4_S_pop_an internal physiological … Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading But in addition, nature provides a further safeguard to help deer survive the winter — an internal physiological response which lowers their metabolism, or rate of bodily functioning, and hence slows down their expenditure of energy. The deer become somewhat slow and drowsy. The heart rate drops. Animals that hibernate practice energy conservation to a greater extreme than deer do. Although deer don’t hibernate, they do the same thing with their seasonal rhythms in metabolism. Deer spend more energy and store fat in the summer and fall when food is abundant, and spend less energy and use stored fat in the winter when food is less available. 1. What are the signs of “an internal physiological response”? The deer becomes somewhat slow and drowsy. The heart rate drops. 2. Translate the sentence into Chinese. 体内生理机能作相应调节,放慢新陈代谢,即生理活动的速度,从而降低能量的消耗。 When the “energy crisis” first came in 1973-1974, I was living with my family in a cabin on the edge of an area where deer spend the winter in northern Minnesota, observing the deer as their behavior changed from more activity in summer and fall to less as winter progressed, followed by an increaseagain

  44. Article5_S_pop_Drive only… Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading in the spring as the snow melted. It was interesting and rather amusing to listen to the advice given on the radio: “Drive only when necessary,” we were told. “Put on more clothes to stay warm, and turn the thermostat on your furnace down.” Meanwhile we watched the deer reduce their activity, grow a winter coat of hair, and reduce their metabolism as they have for thousands of years. It is biologically reasonable for deer to reduce their cost of living to increase their chances of surviving in winter. Not every winter is critical for deer of course. If the winter has light snow, survival and productivity next spring will be high. But if deep snows come and the weather remains cold for several weeks, then the deer must spend more energy to move about, food will be harder to find, and they must then depend more on their fat reserves to pull them through. If such conditions go on for too long some will die, and only the largest and strongest are likely to survive. That is a fundamental rule of life for wild, free wandering animals such as deer. Why should people drive only when necessary? The United States is called a country on wheels. Before the “energy crisis” of 1973 - 1974, gasoline was very cheap in the U.S. and Americans used to drive everywhere, whether it was a coast-to-coast journey or a short trip to the store round the corner. During the “crisis” gasoline was rationed and many people walked, biked or skated to work.

  45. Article5_S_pop_Put on… Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading in the spring as the snow melted. It was interesting and rather amusing to listen to the advice given on the radio: “Drive only when necessary,” we were told. “Put on more clothes to stay warm, and turn the thermostat on your furnace down.” Meanwhile we watched the deer reduce their activity, grow a winter coat of hair, and reduce their metabolism as they have for thousands of years. It is biologically reasonable for deer to reduce their cost of living to increase their chances of surviving in winter. Not every winter is critical for deer of course. If the winter has light snow, survival and productivity next spring will be high. But if deep snows come and the weather remains cold for several weeks, then the deer must spend more energy to move about, food will be harder to find, and they must then depend more on their fat reserves to pull them through. If such conditions go on for too long some will die, and only the largest and strongest are likely to survive. That is a fundamental rule of life for wild, free wandering animals such as deer. 1. What is a thermostat? Why should people turn the thermostat down? The thermostat is an appliance used to heat a house. By turning the thermostat on one’s furnace down, one can save electricity (energy) and money as well. 2. Translate the sentence into Chinese. 多穿衣服好保暖,并请调低锅炉上的恒温器。

  46. Article1_W_turn of mind Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Deer and the Energy Cycle Aaron N. Moen turn of mind: adj. a characteristic tendency or way of thinking He has an optimistic turn of mind. 因为他的想法奇怪,行为也和别人极为不同。 Some persons say that love makes the world go round. Others of a less romantic and more practical turn of mind say that it isn’t love; it’s money. But the truth is that it is energy that makes the world go round. Energy is the currency of the ecological system and life becomes possible only when food is converted into energy, which in turn is used to seek more food to grow, to reproduce and to survive. On this cycle all life depends. With a very peculiar turn of mind, he behaves very differently from anyone else. It is fairly well known that wild animals survive from year to year by eating as much as they can during times of plenty, the summer and fall, storing the excess, usually in the form of fat, and then using these reserves of fat to survive during the hard times in winter when food is scarce. But, it is probably less well known

  47. Article1_W_convert into Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Deer and the Energy Cycle Aaron N. Moen convert into: 1) change into One last effort converted defeat into victory. Some persons say that love makes the world go round. Others of a less romantic and more practical turn of mind say that it isn’t love; it’s money. But the truth is that it is energy that makes the world go round. Energy is the currency of the ecological system and life becomes possible only when food is converted into energy, which in turn is used to seek more food to grow, to reproduce and to survive. On this cycle all life depends. The hotel has been converted into an office building. 2) cause (a person) to change his beliefs, etc. 他们已经改信佛教。 They have converted to Buddhism. Collocation: (使)改变; 改变原来对……的信仰 convert from convert to 改信…… It is fairly well known that wild animals survive from year to year by eating as much as they can during times of plenty, the summer and fall, storing the excess, usually in the form of fat, and then using these reserves of fat to survive during the hard times in winter when food is scarce. But, it is probably less well known

  48. Article1_W_in turn Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Deer and the Energy Cycle Aaron N. Moen in turn: 1) in due course or succession He that shuts Love out, in turn shall be shut out from Love. (Tennyson) Some persons say that love makes the world go round. Others of a less romantic and more practical turn of mind say that it isn’t love; it’s money. But the truth is that it is energy that makes the world go round. Energy is the currency of the ecological system and life becomes possible only when food is converted into energy, which in turn is used to seek more food to grow, to reproduce and to survive. On this cycle all life depends. 将爱拒之门外的人,反过来会被爱拒之门外。(丁尼生) 2) one after another He has applied for various positions in turn as an agent, an accountant and a sales manager. 我们依次看望了每一个老朋友。 We visited each old friend in turn. Collocation: by turns 轮流地;交替地 out of turn 不依照顺序地 It is fairly well known that wild animals survive from year to year by eating as much as they can during times of plenty, the summer and fall, storing the excess, usually in the form of fat, and then using these reserves of fat to survive during the hard times in winter when food is scarce. But, it is probably less well known take a turn 起变化 at the turn (of the century) 在(世纪) 交替时期

  49. Article1_W_excess Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Deer and the Energy Cycle Aaron N. Moen excess: n. 1) the part that is more than necessary An excess of enthusiasm is not always a good thing. Some persons say that love makes the world go round. Others of a less romantic and more practical turn of mind say that it isn’t love; it’s money. But the truth is that it is energy that makes the world go round. Energy is the currency of the ecological system and life becomes possible only when food is converted into energy, which in turn is used to seek more food to grow, to reproduce and to survive. On this cycle all life depends. 饮食中脂肪过量能导致心脏病。 An excess of fat in one’s diet can lead to heart disease. 2) going beyond the normal or accepted limits Luggage in excess of 100 kg will be charged extra. 暴饮暴食无益于健康。 Excess at table is seldom healthful. 3) behavior that goes too far; violence He drinks to excess. 他的过分行为导致了离婚。 It is fairly well known that wild animals survive from year to year by eating as much as they can during times of plenty, the summer and fall, storing the excess, usually in the form of fat, and then using these reserves of fat to survive during the hard times in winter when food is scarce. But, it is probably less well known His excesses led to the divorce. Collocation: in excess of 超过 to excess 过度;过量

  50. Article1_W_reserve1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Deer and the Energy Cycle Aaron N. Moen reserve: 1. n. 1) sth. kept for later use 有些动物在秋季储备大量的食物,以防冬季挨饿。 Some persons say that love makes the world go round. Others of a less romantic and more practical turn of mind say that it isn’t love; it’s money. But the truth is that it is energy that makes the world go round. Energy is the currency of the ecological system and life becomes possible only when food is converted into energy, which in turn is used to seek more food to grow, to reproduce and to survive. On this cycle all life depends. Some animals keep a great reserve of food in fall to keep from starving in winter. To make full use of vast reserves of talent is of great importance. 2) a piece of land kept for a (stated) purpose Laws and regulations are made to protect the wildlife reserves. 他在自然保护区拍了很多狮子的照片。 He took a lot of photos of the lions in the nature reserves. It is fairly well known that wild animals survive from year to year by eating as much as they can during times of plenty, the summer and fall, storing the excess, usually in the form of fat, and then using these reserves of fat to survive during the hard times in winter when food is scarce. But, it is probably less well known