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  1. BR_MAIN1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading 1. Background Information 2. About the Solar System 3. Group Discussion

  2. BR_MAIN2 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading 1. Leon Jaroff 2. Galileo 3. Roger Penrose 4. James Hartle 5. Stephen Hawking 6. Lucasian Professor of Mathematics 7. ALS — Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

  3. BR_MAIN3 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading 1. Warm-up Quiz 2. Dwarf Planets 3. Black Holes 4. Big Bang

  4. Before Reading_1.1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Leon Jaroff Leon Jaroff was the founding managing editor of Discover, the news magazine of science, and was a longtime correspondent, writer and editor for Time and Life. He had written many famous stories such as Science UnderSiege, Secrets of Heredity, Great Ball of Fire (The Sun), Viruses, Allergies and Life on Mars. What’s more, his stories on black holes and Richard Leakey won first prize and honorable mention, respectively, from American Association for the Advancement of Science for the best science stories in 1978. A 1975 cover story on the brain and a 1988 cover story on viruses won top journalism awards from the American Medical Association. His 1991 cover story Allergies won the top award from the American College of Allergy and Immunology.

  5. Before Reading_2.1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Galileo Galileo was a great Italian scientist who helped unlock many secrets of astronomy and natural motion. Galileo’s achievements include: building the first high-powered astronomical telescope; inventing a horse-powered pump to raise water; showing that the velocities of falling bodies are not proportional to their weights; describing the true parabolic paths of cannonballs and other projectiles; coming up with the ideas behind Newton’s laws of motion; and confirming the Copernican theory of the solar system. Because he believed that the planets revolved around the sun, and not the Earth, Galileo was denounced as a heretic by the Church in Rome. He faced the Inquisition and was forced to renounce those beliefs publicly, though later research, of course, proved him to be correct.

  6. Before Reading_2.2 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading 1. What was Galileo’s greatest achievement to human beings? He helped unlock many secrets of astronomy and natural motion. 2. Why was Galileo punished by the Church in Rome? Because he believed that the planets revolved around the sun.

  7. Before Reading_2.3 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Roger Penrose Roger Penrose is an English mathematical physicist and Emeritus Rouse Ball Professor of Mathematics at the Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford and Emeritus Fellow of Wadham College. He is highly regarded for his work in mathematical physics, in particular his contributions to general relativity and cosmology. He is also a recreational mathematician and philosopher. Roger Penrose is well-known for: 1. His 1974 discovery of Penrose tilings, which are formed from two tiles that can only tile the plane periodically. 2. Another noteworthy contribution is his 1971 invention of spin networks, which later came to form the geometry of space time in loop quantum gravity.

  8. Before Reading_2.3.1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading

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  13. Before Reading_2.4 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading James Hartle James B. Hartle is an American physicist and professor of physics at the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB) since 1966. He is known for his work in general relativity, astrophysics, and interpretation of quantum mechanics. Together with Stephen Hawking, he proposed the Hartle-Hawking wave function of the Universe — a specific solution to the Wheeler-DeWitt equation meant to explain the initial conditions of the Big Bang cosmology.

  14. Before Reading_2.4.1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading

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  17. Before Reading_2.5 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Stephen Hawking Stephen Hawking is considered the world’s foremost living theoretical physicist. He’s an expert on black holes whose stated intention is to unify quantum mechanics with Einstein’s general theory of relativity, forming a single theory to explain the origin (and end) of the universe. Hawking, a professor of mathematics at Cambridge University, is the author of the best-selling book A Brief History of Time and something of a celebrity: Hawking has suffered from ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, also called Lou Gehrig’s disease) since he was a young man and is confined to a wheelchair. In 1979 Hawking took the post of Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge. According to Hawking’s own site, “The chair was founded in 1663 with money left in the will of the Reverend Henry Lucas, who had been the Member of Parliament for the University. It was first held by Isaac Barrow, and then in 1663 by Isaac Newton.”

  18. Before Reading_2.5.1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading

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  23. Before Reading_2.6 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Lucasian Professor of Mathematics Directions: Fill in the blanks with the exact words or phrases you have heard. holder _____ Lucasian Professor is the of a mathematical professorship at Cambridge University. The post was founded in 1663 by Henry Lucas, who was Cambridge University’s Member of from 1639 to 1640, and was ________ officially _____________ Parliament ___________ bequeathed established by King Charles II on January 18, 1664. Lucas, in his will, his library of 4,000 volumes to the university and left instruction for the of land whose yielding would provide £100 a year for the founding of a professorship. One of the requirements in Lucas’s will was that the holder of the professorship should not be active in the Church. Isaac Newton would later King Charles II that this requirement taking holy orders, which was for Fellows of the University at that time (save some exempt Fellowships). The King supported Newton and excused all holders of the professorship, in _________ purchase appeal to _______ excused him from __________ compulsory ______________ perpetuity ________ , from the requirement to take holy orders. The current Lucasian Professor of Mathematics is theoretical physicist Stephen Hawking. He was appointed in 1980. renowned ________

  24. Before Reading_2.7.1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading ALS — Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Description Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a disease that breaks down tissues in the nervous system of unknown cause that affects the nerves responsible for movement. It is also known as motor neuron disease and Lou Gehrig’s disease, after the baseball player whose career it ended. Causes The symptoms of ALS are caused by the death of motor neurons in the spinal cord and brain. As motor neurons die, the muscles they enervate cannot be moved as effectively, and weakness results. Although many causes of motor neuron degeneration have been suggested for ALS, none has yet been proven responsible.

  25. Before Reading_2.7.2 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Symptoms The earliest sign of ALS is most often weakness in the arms or legs, usually more pronounced on one side than the other at first. In addition to weakness, the other cardinal signs of ALS are muscle wasting and persistent twitching. While initial weakness may be limited to one region, ALS almost always progresses rapidly to involve virtually all the voluntary muscle groups in the body. Diagnosis The diagnosis of ALS begins with a complete medical history and physical exam, plus a neurological examination to determine the distribution and extent of weakness. An electrical test of muscle function, called an electromyogram, or EMG, is an important part of the diagnostic process. Various other tests, including blood and urine tests, X rays, and CT scans, may be done to rule out other possible causes of the symptoms.

  26. Before Reading_2.7.3 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Treatments There is no cure for ALS, and no treatment that can significantly alter its course. There are many things which can be done, however, to help maintain quality of life and to retain functional ability even in the face of progressive weakness. Prognosis ALS usually progresses rapidly, and leads to death from respiratory infection within three to five years in most cases. The slowest disease progression is seen in those who are young and have their first symptoms in the limbs. About 10% of people with ALS live longer than eight years. Prevention There is no known way to prevent ALS or to alter its course.

  27. KEY KEY Before Reading_2.8.1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Warm-up Quiz Directions: Choose the most appropriate answer to each of the following questions. 1. The Sun is ____. A) the only star in our galaxy B) just one of the billion stars that make up our galaxy C) the largest planet in our galaxy D) technically speaking, one of theEarth’s moon 2. Which of the following features makes theEarth unique among planets? A) It is the only round planet. B) It is the only planet with its own moon. C) It is the only planet with enough oxygen to sustain life. D) It is the only ringed planet.

  28. KEY KEY KEY Before Reading_2.8.2 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading 3. Comets are icy masses of frozen gases and dust particles. What happens when a comet gets too close to the Sun? A) The gases catch fire, making the comet glow. B) The ice begins to melt, leaving a trail of gases and debris. C) The comet explodes, and it is called a supernova. D) The comet bounces off the Sun’s magnetosphere. 4. What is the central and largest body of our solar system? A) Jupiter. B) The Milky Way. C) Mars. D) TheSun. 5. What would change if our Sun were suddenly replaced by a black hole of the same mass? A) The Earth would be sucked into the black hole. B) The planets would not have the same orbit. C) Only the temperature on the Earth would change.

  29. Before Reading_2.9.1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Dwarf Planets A dwarf planet is a body, other than a natural satellite (moon), that orbits the Sun and that is, for practical purposes, smaller than the planet Mercury yet large enough for its own gravity to have rounded its shape substantially. The International Astronomical Union adopted this category of solar system bodies in August 2006, the first members of the category are as follows: Pluto Eris Ceres These three bodies are not massive enough and are in orbits too elliptical, too inclined, or both to have swept up most smaller nearby bodies by gravitational attraction; they thus fail to grow larger.

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  36. Before Reading_2.10 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Black Holes A black hole is an object with a gravitational field so powerful that a region of space becomes cut off from the rest of the universe — no matter or radiation, including visible light, which has entered the region, can ever escape. ■

  37. Before Reading_2.11 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Big Bang In astronomy, it is a theory according to which the universe began billions of years ago in a single event, similar to an explosion. There is evidence for the Big Bang theory in the observed red shift of distant galaxies, which indicates that they are moving away from the Earth, in the existence of cosmic microwave background, and from other data. Most astronomers accept the Big Bang theory of the origin of the universe today. Scientists have recently found that the expansion of the universe is actually speeding up. This effect is attributed to the presence of dark energy.

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  40. BR_MAIN Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Group Discussion 1. What can you learn from Stephen Hawking’s experience? 2. What do you think of black holes?

  41. Globe Reading_main Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading 1. Part Division of the Text 2. Further Understanding For Part 1 True or False For Part 2 Questions For Part 3 Table Completion For Part 4 Group Discussion

  42. Globe Reading_1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Part Division of the Text Parts Paragraphs Main Ideas 1 1-2 Hawking is widely acknowledged as one of the most famous physicists. In spite of his illness, Hawking still works hard in his research field. 2 3-9 3 10-12 Hawking’s most innovative ideas about black holes and Big Bang. Recently, Hawking is trying to recant his former work. 4 13-14

  43. Globe Reading_2.1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading True or False 1. As Stephen Hawking, one of the greatest theoretical mathematicians, controlled his vehicle down the thoroughfare, people greeted him eagerly. ( ) F Stephen Hawking is one of the world’s most famous theoretical physicists. 2. Hawking’s illness has been advancing even more quickly, which robbed him of any physical movement. ( ) F Even though Hawking’s illness seemed to be stabilized, this illness still robbed him of control over most of his muscles. ( ) F 3. Regardless of illness, Stephen Hawking can still speak. Stephen Hawking cannot speak anymore, but by operating his wheelchair’s built-in computer and voice synthesizer, he can “utter” his words.

  44. Globe Reading_2.2 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading 4. After Stephen Hawking was stricken by the serious illness, his research was virtually stopped. ( ) F His mental expeditions have never been stopped. Hawking conceived theories about black holes, and he suggested that the universe has no boundaries.

  45. Globe Reading_3 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Questions 1. Was Stephen Hawking’s daily routine work very tough and demanding? Yes. Hawking follows a routine that would even be a tough job to those able-bodied people, let alone a disabled one. 2. How was Stephen Hawking’s study in his childhood? He was slow to learn to read, and he liked to take things apart but was never good at putting them back. 3. How was Stephen Hawking’s study before ALS struck him? In college, he was not an outstanding student at all. And in graduate school, he still found study was tough. 4. What was Hawking’s early behavior after he was informed of his physical situation? He was overwhelmed and totally ignored his study. 5. What made Hawking pick up his research again? In the first place, the progress of ALS seemed to be slowed. But the most important reason was that he was going to get married with Jane.

  46. ___________ ____________ Globe Reading_4 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Table Completion Einstein’s idea about black holes Most physicists’ ideas about black holes Hawking’s ideas about black holes was a region surrounding , which is an dense point with and gravity. ___________ A black hole Black holes , but at the heart of ablack hole would be and dense. exist ____ _____________ general relativity If is correct, must exist. What’s more, the must have sprung from the object _________ ________ singularity __________ a singularity _______ infinitely small but not entire universe ____________ one singularity ______________ no dimensions ____________. dimensionless extremely _________ _________ irresistible

  47. Globe Reading_5 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Group Discussion Directions: Divide students into several groups, and then ask them to hold a discussion about the following questions. After discussions, invite some groups to do their presentations. 1. Recently Hawking was trying to prove that his famous proof — singularities exist — was wrong. What does this imply? 2. According to the passage, what are the personalities of Stephen Hawking? And list several pieces of evidence to prove your ideas.

  48. Article0 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading A victim of an incurable disease, Stephen Hawking is almost completely paralysed, confined to a wheelchair, and unable to speak. Yet, he has overcome every obstacle and achieved far more than most able-bodied people ever dream of accomplishing and become one of the greatest physicists of our time.

  49. Article1 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Roaming the Cosmos Leon Jaroff Darkness has fallen on Cambridge, England, and on a damp and chilly evening King’s Parade is filled with students and faculty. Then, down the crowded thoroughfare comes the University of Cambridge’s most distinctive vehicle, bearing its most distinguished citizen. In the motorized wheelchair, boyish face dimly illuminated by a glowing computer screen attached to the left armrest, is Stephen William Hawking, 46, one of the world’s greatest theoretical physicists. As he skillfully maneuvers through the crowd, motorists slow down, some honking their horns in greeting. People wave and shout hello.

  50. Article2 Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading A huge smile lights up Hawking’s bespectacled face, but he cannot wave or shout back. Since his early 20s, he has suffered from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a progressive deterioration of the central nervous system that usually causes death within three or four years. Hawking’s illness has advanced more slowly, and now seems almost to have stabilized. Still, it has robbed him of virtually all movement. He has no control over most of his muscles, cannot dress or eat by himself and has lost his voice. Now he “speaks” only by using the slight voluntary movement left in his hands and fingers to operate his wheelchair’s built-in computer and voice synthesizer. While ALS has made Hawking a virtual prisoner in his own body, it has left his courage and humor intact, his intellect free to roam. And roam it does, from the infinitesimal to the infinite, from the subatomic realm to the far reaches of the universe. In thecourse ofthese mental expeditions,Hawking has conceived startling new theories about black holes and the disorderly events that immediately followed the Big Bang from which the universe sprang.