Section 15.3: Slavery Dominates Politics Today’s Essential Question: How did slavery dominate national events after 1855?
Vocabulary • Republican Party – political party formed in 1854 to oppose slavery • unconstitutional – illegal because it violates the Constitution • arsenal – place where weapons are stored
Check for Understanding • What is today’s Essential Question? • How have the goals of the Republican Party changed over time? • What does it mean if the Supreme Court declares a law unconstitutional? • Why would someone break into an arsenal?
What We Already Know Although the Whigs and Democrats were the two major political parties of the 1850s, there were other parties as well, such as the Know-Nothings.
What We Already Know After the failure of the Wilmot Proviso to ban slavery in the Mexican Cession, the Free Soil Party was formed to stop the spread of slavery into new territories.
What We Already Know The Kansas-Nebraska Act led to widespread violence on the plains in 1854.
The Republican Party Forms • Created out of the problems caused by the Kansas–Nebraska Act • The Whig Party split; Northern Whigs joined Free Soilers and other slavery opponents • Gained strength in the North as the Democrats were blamed for the violence in Kansas.
What was the Republican Party’s main goal? To end slavery everywhere in America To return all blacks to Africa To stop the spread of slavery into the territories To bring Canada and Mexico into the United States
17. What issues led to the creation of the Republican Party? Choose all that are true!
17. What issues led to the creation of the Republican Party? Northern Whigs leaving their party to join with other opponents of slavery Opposition by James Buchanan to the Wilmot Proviso The emergence of Abraham Lincoln Problems caused by the Kansas Nebraska Act Choose all that are true!
Republican Candidate John C. Frémont • First Republican presidential nominee • Young, handsome, national hero for his explorations in the West • Favored admitting both California and Kansas as free states. • Had no controversial record to defend.
The Election of 1856 • Democrat nominee James Buchanan had taken no stand on the Kansas–Nebraska Act. • Buchanan said little about slavery; his goal was to maintain the Union. • He appealed to Southerners, the border states, and Northerners who were fearful of a civil war.
The Election of 1856 • The Know-Nothing Party nominated former president Millard Fillmore (1850-53), but were divided over slavery.
The Election of 1856 Election results showed how strong the Republican Party was in the North, and that the nation was sharply split over slavery.
Which of the following was NOT a candidate in the 1856 presidential election? • Douglas of the Free Soil Party • Fremont of the Republican Party • Buchanan of the Democratic Party • Fillmore of the Know-Nothing Party
What did the election results in 1856 reveal? • Party differences were less sharply defined that in earlier elections. • The influence of the Republican Party was declining in the North. • The influence of the Democratic Party was declining in the South. • The nation was sharply split over slavery.
The Case of Dred Scott • Dred Scott was a slave whose owner took him to live in free territories, then returned to Missouri, a slave state. • After his owner’s death, Scott sued for his freedom, but the Supreme Court ruled against him.
Chief Justice Taney‘s Ruling • As a Negro, Scott was not a U.S. citizen and could not sue in U.S courts. • Slaveholders’ property rights were protected by the Fifth Amendment. • Congress could not ban slavery anywhere, including the territories.
Chief Justice Roger Taney‘s Ruling • This decision made the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional. • Southerners cheered the Court’s decision, while Many Northerners were outraged, but powerless.
18. What was the Supreme Court ruling in the Dred Scott case? • As a slave, Dred Scott was not a U.S. citizen. • Only Congress could restrict the movement of slaves into the territories. • Dred Scott was no longer a slave. • Slave-owners could take their slaves everywhere, including free states and territories. • The Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional. Choose all that are true!
Lincoln-Douglas Debates (1858) • The Dred Scott decision angered Republicans. • They claimed that Democrats wanted to open up the whole country to slavery. • They planned to use this argument to challenge Stephen Douglas and other Democrats in the 1858 elections.
Lincoln-Douglas Debates (1858) • Abraham Lincoln was nominated by Illinois Republicans to run against Douglas for his U.S. Senate seat. • In his first campaign speech, Lincoln expressed Republican fears that Democrats threatened to expand slavery across the whole country.
Lincoln-Douglas Debates (1858) Lincoln warned, “A house divided against itself cannot stand. I believe this government cannot endure, permanently half slave and half free. I do not expect the Union to be dissolved—I do not expect the house to fall—but I do expect it will cease to be divided. It will become all one thing, or all the other.”
Lincoln and Douglas Debates (1858) Lincoln called slavery was “a moral, a social and a political wrong,” but did not suggest abolishing slavery where it already existed, only that it should not be expanded. Douglas argued for popular sovereignty as the most democratic method to do deal with slavery. Both men believed in the superiority of whites over Negroes.
Lincoln and Douglas Debates (1858) • Lincoln: ‘I have no purpose to interfere with slavery in the states where it already exists. I have no lawful right to do so, and I have no desire to do so.’ • ‘I have no intention of introducing political and social equality between the races. Their differences make it impossible to for them ever to live together as equals, and therefore I am in favor of my race having the upper position.’
Lincoln-Douglas Debates (1858) • ‘But the Negro is just as entitled to the rights mentioned in the Declaration of Independence as the white man.’ • ‘The Negro is not my equal in color, and perhaps not in moral and intellectual development.’ • ‘But in the right to eat the bread his labor produces without asking anyone else’s permission, he is my equal, and the equal of Sen. Douglas, and the equal of every man .’
Lincoln and Douglas Debates (1858) Douglas won reelection, but Lincoln became a national figure and a leader in the Republican Party.
19. What was the main issue in the Lincoln–Douglas debates? the Dred Scott ruling South Carolina's decision to secede slavery in the territories the trial of John Brown
John Brown Attacks Harpers Ferry In 1859, John Brown planned to capture the U.S. arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia, and use its weapons to start a slave uprising across the South.
John Brown Attacks Harpers Ferry Brown’s group captured the arsenal, but no slaves joined the fight.
John Brown Attacks Harpers Ferry The U.S. Marines captured Brown and six others, and ten men were killed.
John Brown Attacks Harpers Ferry In 1859, John Brown planned to capture the U.S. arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia, and use its weapons to start a slave uprising across the South. The U.S. Marines captured Brown and six others were captured, and ten men were killed. Brown’s group captured the arsenal, but no slaves joined the fight. Brown was tried and convicted for murder and treason, and was hanged.
Reaction to John Brown and Harpers Ferry • In the North, abolitionists mourned Brown’s death and called him a hero. • Southerners were enraged by Brown’s actions and horrified by Northerners’ sympathetic reactions to his death. • With the election of 1860 drawing near, the issue of slavery had raised sectional tensions to the breaking point.
To seize the U.S. arsenal located there To call public attention to "Bleeding Kansas” To arm slaves with captured weapons To start a slave uprising To get weapons for South Carolina’s militia 20. Why did John Brown attack the arsenal at Harpers Ferry? Choose all that are true!
Southerners were enraged by Brown's actions. Northerners were horrified by Southern tributes honoring Brown. Southerners were horrified by Northern tributes honoring Brown. Some Northerners made a hero out of Brown for his actions against slavery. Some Southerners praised Brown for his violence against abolitionists. 21. How did John Brown’s attack on Harper’s Ferry increase tensions between the North and the South? Choose all that are true!