Revolutions/Independence Movements. Aim: How did the ideals of the Enlightenment act as a catalyst to revolutions?. North America. Seven Years War. Britain’s empire in America seemed secure after its victory over France in 1763, but the cost of the war had been high.
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Aim: How did the ideals of the Enlightenment act as a catalyst to revolutions?
Britain’s empire in America seemed secure after its victory over France in 1763, but the cost of the war had been high.
Dealing with this debt started a chain of events that led to deteriorating relations between the crown in London and its subjects in North America.
1774: Continental Congress organized and coordinated colonial resistance.
1775: Battle of Lexington
1776:*Declaration of Independence – inspired by Enlightenment ideas – justified independence.
*It listed a long list of abuses by the British crown amid a declaration that all men were created equal.
“As for me, I believe in no taxation, with or without representation.”
Wanted to replace the “Old Regime” with completely new political, social and cultural structures.
Can you think of any other differences these two revolutions had?
The three estates consisted of:
1st estate: 100,000 clergy
2nd estate: 400,000 nobles
3rd estate: 24 million serfs, free peasants, and bourgeoisie
(Charles I – Civil War)
Switzerland, Netherlands, Belgium, Italian States
Confederation of German states
Some countries disappear to give Austria, Prussia, and Russia land
All former monarchs that Napoleon replaced will return to their thrones
Congress of Vienna
Austria, Prussia and Russia form Holy Alliance - Spread Christian ideals
Concert of Europe:
Agreement that if a revolution breaks out, all countries will help stop it.
No major full continent wars for almost 90 years.
However, smaller war and many nationalistic revolutions will shortly break out due to people being controlled by a foreign ruler
People like democracy, willing to fight for it.