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Unit Five. Absolutism, Age of Enlightenment, & Revolutions. Standards – Absolutism & Revolution. SSWH14 The student will analyze the Age of Revolutions and Rebellions. Examine absolutism through a comparison of the rules of Louis XIV, Tsar Peter the Great, and Tokugawa Ieyasu .

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unit five

Unit Five

Absolutism, Age of Enlightenment, & Revolutions

standards absolutism revolution
Standards – Absolutism & Revolution

SSWH14 The student will analyze the Age of Revolutions and Rebellions.

Examine absolutism through a comparison of the rules of Louis XIV, Tsar Peter the Great, and Tokugawa Ieyasu.

Identify the causes and results of the revolutions in England (1689), United States (1776), France (1789), Haiti (1791), and Latin America (1808-1825).

Explain Napoleon’s rise to power, the role of geography in his defeat, and the consequences of France’s defeat for Europe

Examine the interaction of China and Japan with westerners; include the Opium War, the Taiping Rebellion, and Commodore Perry.

standards china and japan
Standards – China and Japan

SSWH11 Students will investigate political and social changes in Japan and in China from the seventeenth century CE to mid-nineteenth century CE.

Describe the policies of the Tokugawa and Qing rules; include how Oda Nobunaga laid the ground work for the subsequent Tokugawa rulers and how Kangxi came to rule for such a long period in China.

Analyze the impact of population growth and its impact on the social structure of Japan and China.

standards age of enlightenment
Standards – Age of Enlightenment

SSWH13 The student will examine the intellectual, political, social, and economic factors that changed the world view of Europeans.

a. Explain the scientific contributions of Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler, and Newton and how these ideas changed the European world view.

b. Identify the major ideas of the Enlightenment from the writings of Locke, Voltaire, and Rousseau and their relationship to politics and society.

day one
Day One


first ten
First Ten

Be sure to have a textbook

Pick up a half sheet reading from the chair – do not write on it – read it and be ready for discussion.

How to do vocabulary this unit

What does divine mean?

What is a monarchy?

What gave kings that “right to rule” over people? Would we follow this model in the U.S.?


The state of monarchy is the supremest thing upon earth; for kings are not only God’s lieutenants upon earth, and sit upon God’s throne, but even by God Himself they are called gods... Kings justly gods, for they exercise a... divine power upon earth... God hath power to create or destroy, make or unmake at His pleasure, to give life or sent death to judge and to be judged nor accountable to none, to raise low things and to make high things low at His pleasure... And the like power of kings...

-King James IV/I of Britain, 160

What is divine right?

What is an absolute monarchy?  Age of Absolutism

How is this different from a democracy?

work session
Work Session

Absolutism Activity with Notes


Versailles Tour

Peter the Great

Comparison Activity

absolutism and divine right
Absolutism and Divine Right

Absolutism is when a single individual rules with complete power over their subjects. Typically they control your private and public life

Laws are made without the consent of the governed  purpose is to centralize their power

Rule by divine right was used by absolute monarchs in the 16th and 17th centuries to maintain control over the people. This is the belief that the monarch is God’s representative on earth. They receive their authority from God. If you challenge the monarchy, you are challenging God. When you challenge the King that is treason.

king louis xiv
King Louis XIV

Ruler of France – “I am the State” – “Sun King” 1643-1715

Social: Weakened the authority of the noble class and gave that authority to intendants (government workers – not from a noble class), use of army to put down internal and external opponents

Political: Initiated wars to expand empire and increase wealth

Innovations: Palace of Versailles, dams & irrigation, self-glorification through art – ballet & opera

Culture: ended Protestant freedoms with the Edict of Nantes

Economic: Heavy taxation to fund projects and wars, make France self-sufficient (mercantilism)  colonies

Sun King


king louis xiv of france
King Louis XIV of France
  • What characteristics of this painting show the power of King Louis?
chart analysis
Chart Analysis
  • Based on this chart, what assumption can be made concerning Louis and his leadership as an absolute monarch?
peter the great
Peter the Great

Czar of Russia – 1682 – 1725

Social: nobility class (boyars) must embrace westernization, large use of peasant labor to build cities

Political: Tension with Church, taxation, First Czar out of Russia

Innovations: St. Petersburg – Window to the West, Grand Embassy

Culture: Westernization (dress and appearance), took control of the Orthodox Church

Economic: heavy taxation for large building projects (St. Petersburg)

Peter the Great - Discovery

czar peter i of russia
Czar Peter I of Russia
  • What image is Peter trying to convey in this painting?
last ten
Last Ten

Comparing Louis and Peter

Compare and Contrast – Louis v. Peter

Absolutism DBQ is due on Thursday


DBQ Activity is due on Friday

Reading Analysis #1 is due on Thursday

day two
Day Two

Absolutism in the East

first ten1
First Ten

“Here a new city shall be wrought [built]…

Shall break a window to the West…

Here flags of foreign nations all

By waters new to them will call…”

  • Which of the following does not belong?
  • St. Petersburg, Paris, Versailles
  • Taxation, frequent wars, freedom of speech
  • Divine Right, Absolutism, Reason
  • Louis XIV, intendant, boyar
  • Grand Embassy, Edict of Nantes, Westernization

What is being described in this quote?

Yesterday we discussed Louis XIV & Peter the Great. Would you argue that they were an effective monarch? Why or why not?


On your worksheet complete the front for Louis and Peter (This should be review).

work session1
Work Session
  • Today we will discuss Absolute monarchs in China and Japan.
  • Complete your chart on the back, just as you did on the front using your textbook:
    • Japan: 542-547
    • China: 539-541

Warring States Period (1467-1568)

Oda Nobunaga (1568-1582)

ToyotomiHideyoshi (1582-1598)

Tokugawa Ieyasu (1600-1616) BUT his family ruled Japan until 1867  Tokugawa Shogunate

japan under centralization
Japan under Centralization
  • Tokugawa Shogunate:
    • Construction of Edo Castle
    • Alternate attendance policy for the daimyos
    • Persecution of Christianity
    • Resorted to isolationism

Edo Castle

largest donjon (tower) in Japan

Daimyo were forced to help pay for this project

All surrounding hills were leveled and the bay was filled in!

Daimyo sent 3,000 ships for years to get enough large stone for Ieyasu


Ming  Qing

Ming embraced exploration and contact with the Europeans/Africans/other Asians

Qing seized power in China in 1644.

Kangxi was their first emperor (1661-1722)

Qian-long (grandson) ruled from (1736-1795)

china under centralization
China under Centralization

Brought restoration through strict boundaries in country

Lower taxation

Patron of the Arts & learning  culture flourished

Religious FREEDOM! – Jesuits and Confucianism allowed

Originally allowed Christian merchants and missionaries (new products brought in and out of country) but soon isolated China – no desire for trade with European countries – Dutch were allowed to stay but had to pay a tribute  China wanted to be self-sufficient.

Successfully invades Korea

Women lacked freedoms

conclusion similarities
Conclusion  Similarities
  • All rise to power after years of warfare

(better to have strict dictator than chaos and war)

  • Built strong armies
  • All raise heavy taxes
  • Expanded territory
  • Created a strong centralized power
  • Brought nobility under control
  • Drew advisors from middle class
  • Encouraged better manufacturing and trade
  • Brought church under gov’t control
  • Did not allow religious toleration
last ten1
Last Ten

How were western policies similar and different from eastern policies during the Age of Absolutism?

day three
Day Three

Review Absolutism and Scientific Revolution

first ten2
First Ten
  • Pick up a sheet from the chair and complete!
    • Chinese Population Analysis
    • Crossword Review
  • I will be checking your DBQ Assignment at this time.
  • What do you know about the individuals below? Can you list their major accomplishments?
    • Nicolas Copernicus
    • Galileo Galilee
    • Johannes Kepler
    • Sir Isaac Newton
  • Definition of Scientific Revolution?
    • New theories replaced old theories of science that were rooted in a new idea called the scientific method.
work session2
Work Session
  • Scientific Revolution DBQ and Discussion
  • Work time!
    • Vocabulary
    • Analytical Reading
main ideas
Main Ideas

In the mid-1500’s scientists began to question accepted beliefs and make new theories based on experimentation

Such questioning led to the development of the scientific method still in use today.

  • Polish Cleric & astronomer
  • Worked 25 years to develop the Heliocentric Theory which challenged the Catholic Church’s Geocentric Theory (which was based off of research by Aristotle during the Greek Golden Age).
  • Since he feared the church (heresy) he did not publish his findings until the year of his day in 1543.
  • He did not have the mathematical formulas to prove his findings, just observations.
  • Italian Scientist
  • Developed his own telescope in 1609
  • Findings: Jupiter has 4 moons, the sun has dark spots, and the moon was imperfect.
  • These findings went against the Catholic Church’s ideas of the moon (again based on Aristotle.
  • However, Galileo published the Starry Messenger (1632) in which he supported the Copernican theory.
persecution of galileo
Persecution of Galileo
  • Galileo was put on trial for heresy – Inquisition – Where he reads a confession.
  • Although he recanted, he was still placed on house arrest until his death in 1642.
  • The Catholic Church apologized for their actions in 1992.

I, Galileo…Florentine, aged seventy years, …kneeling before you,…swear that I have always believed, do believe, and by God's help will in  the future believe, all that is held, preached, and taught by the Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church…I must altogether abandon the false opinion that the sun is the center of the world and immovable, and that the earth is not the center of the world, and moves, and that I must not hold, defend, or teach in any way whatsoever, verbally or in writing, the said false doctrine…I wrote and printed a book in which I discuss this new doctrine already condemned,…I have been pronounced by the Holy Office to be vehemently suspected of heresy, that is to say, of having held and believed that the Sun is the center of the world and immovable, and that the earth is not the center and moves:  …with sincere heart and unfeigned faith I abjure, curse, and detest the aforesaid errors and heresies, and generally every other error, heresy,  and sect whatsoever contrary to the said Holy Church, and I swear that in the future I will never again say or assert, verbally or in writing, anything that might furnish occasion for a similar suspicion regarding me…”

  • German mathematician & astronomer
  • Assistant to Tycho Brahe (student of Copernicus)
  • Findings: planets move in elliptical patterns, not circles & proved Copernican theory using mathematical evidence.Also, many of his findings formed a foundation for Sir Isaac Newton
sir isaac newton
Sir Isaac Newton
  • English scientist – 1600’s
  • Studied math and physics at Cambridge
  • Findings: Universal Gravitation, Laws of Motion
  • “If I have seen further than others, it is because I have stood on the shoulders of giants.”
questions you should be able to answer
Questions you should be able to answer…

What was the difference between the helio – and geo – centric theories?

Who had the authority in science prior to the Scientific Revolution?

What was the importance/significance of the Scientific Revolution?

Why did Copernicus not publish his findings until after his death?

Name 3 new ideas and findings by Galileo.

How did Kepler confirm the theories of Copernicus and Galileo?

How was Newton the “capstone” of the Scientific Revolution?

last ten2
Last Ten

What am I Thinking? Activity

CNN Student News – UN Day!

Reminder – Analytical Reading #1 Due tomorrow on Edmodo

day four
Day Four

Enlightenment Ideas

first ten3
First Ten

POP Quiz – Pick up scantron

Quiz in 3 minutes – Study your notes from absolutism and Scientific Revolution


Hippocampus Video – What was the Age of Reason/Enlightenment?

work session3
Work Session


Stations with chart

last ten3
Last Ten

One tweet for each thinker – must include 1 hash tag - #

CNN Student News

day five
Day Five

Enlightenment Thinkers and Impact  Revolutions

first ten4
First Ten

Pick up your scantron and review the questions you missed. Ask questions – neighbors and me.

Analytical Readings were graded yesterday and grades were entered – The assignments for the most part were complete (as in answering all of the questions) however, I feel that more detail can be included in the main idea bullet points. Also, formal grammar and spelling is required on any assignment turned in.

Project grades were entered as well. If you have a question about your grade please let me know at the end of class (during announcements)

questions to review
Questions to Review

Class average – 80%

#3 – Mita was a labor tribute required by the Incan government – used for government construction of buildings and public works (roads).

#8 – A major result of the European conquest of LA was the diffusion of the Spanish language.

#11- Bartolomeu Dias captained the first ship to sail around the Cape of Good Hope.

#19 – Samuel de Champlain explored the Great Lakes regions and modern day Quebec.

#26 – Dias sailed for Portugal.

#27 – Columbus sailed for SPAIN.

#32 – Pizzaro sailed for Spain.

#33 – slavery and disease

#34 – If African slaves already had small pox they were immune and would not get them again and risk perishing.

#35 – knowledge of agriculture, slave trade was already in existence between Africa, Europe, and Asia, immune to Old World diseases, did not know they “new” world

  • What was the Enlightenment?
  • Major contributions of:
    • Thomas Hobbes
    • John Locke
    • Voltaire
    • Mary Wollstonecraft
    • Cesar Beccaria
    • Baron de Montesquieu
    • Jean Jacques Rousseau
  • How did Enlightenment ideas challenge Absolutism?
work session4
Work Session
  • Revolution Basics
    • English Revolution – Glorious Revolution (1688)
    • American Revolution (1776)
    • French Revolution (1789)
english revolution 1689
English Revolution (1689)

Troubling times followed Elizabeth’s reign in England in the 17th century.

The House of Stuart reigned with unsuccessful actions.

Using the first two pages in your packet, complete questions #1-6.

During this time in England, colonies were successfully being settled in the New World – original 13 colonies.

The Hanoverians will take the throne next setting the stage for new conflicts through oversea expansion.


Complete English and American Revolution Essentials.

Let’s rewrite the English Bill of Rights.

english bor
English BOR

1. That the pretended power of suspending laws, or the execution of laws, by regal authority, without consent of parliament is illegal.

4. That levying money for or to the use of the crown by pretense of prerogative, without grant of parliament, for longer time or in other manner than the same is or shall be granted, is illegal.

5. That it is the right of the subjects to petition the king, and all commitments and prosecutions for such petitioning are illegal.

6. That the raising or keeping a standing army within the kingdom in time of peace, unless it be with consent of parliament, is against law.

7. That the subjects which are Protestants may have arms for their defense suitable to their conditions, and as allowed by law.

8. That election of members of parliament ought to be free.

9. That the freedom of speech, and debates or proceedings in parliament, ought not to be impeached or questioned in any court or place out of parliament.

10. That excessive bail ought not to be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

13. And that for redress of all grievances, and for the amending, strengthening, and preserving of the laws, parliament ought to be held frequently.

last ten4
Last Ten

The concept of a revolution rocked the world of monarchies and created new forms of government for the world to follow.

What other revolutions in modern history can we relate to the age of revolutions in the 18th century?

How do revolutions impact social structure?

Prior to leaving here today you must be able to understand the relationship between the following: Absolutism  Enlightenment  Revolutions

day six
Day Six

French Revolution

first ten5
First Ten

Pick up your packet.

Answer # 1-6 on pg. 2 (answers only)

Using pg. 3 complete the chart below:

  • Explain relationship between these terms:
    • Absolutism, Enlightenment, Revolutions
work session5
Work Session

Read and discuss French Revolution in Packet

Start video

last ten spice of revolutions
Last Ten – SPICE of Revolutions




C ulture


day seven
Day Seven

French Revolution & Napoleon

first ten6
First Ten

1. The quote above is the colonial response to the passage of the Stamp Act. The Stamp Act required individuals to pay an additional tax on any printed good (newspapers, paper to write letters on, playing cards, etc). How do the colonists respond to this tax?

2. The political cartoon to the right illustrates the _________________ because __________________.

  • Complete the “significance” section on page 3 of your French Revolution video notes.
  • Some important details:
    • 3 Estates
    • Estates General Meeting
    • Role of Louis and Marie
    • “National Assembly”
    • Tennis Court Oath
    • Storming of Bastille
work session6
Work Session

Finish video – French Revolution

last ten5
Last Ten
  • Vocabulary Review
    • Glorious Revolution/Bill of Rights/Constitutional Monarchy
    • American Revolution/Declaration of Independence
    • French Revolution/The Three Estates/Bourgeoisie
    • King Louis XVI/Marie Antoinette
    • Estates-General/Tennis Court Oath
    • Bastille Day
    • Reign of Terror/Maximilian Robespierre
day eight
Day Eight

Napoleon and Latin American Revolutions

first ten7
First Ten
  • History of Halloween
  • So what just happened?
    • Write this down:
    • France was in a bad situation due to debt, crop failures, tension between the social classes, and poor leadership. With revolutionary ideas swirling around the world, the bourgeoisie felt empowered to change France. France entered into revolutionary times that were chaotic and deadly. In the end, thousands of people lost their life and France remained in political turmoil.
    • French Revolution Review
  • Vocabulary Review
    • Glorious Revolution/Bill of Rights/Constitutional Monarchy
    • American Revolution/Declaration of Independence
    • French Revolution/The Three Estates/Bourgeoisie
    • King Louis XVI/Marie Antoinette
    • Estates-General/Tennis Court Oath
    • Bastille Day
    • Reign of Terror/Maximilian Robespierre
work session7
Work Session

Napoleon Notes with graphic organizer

Latin American Revolutions Reading and Bubble Map

rise of napoleon
Rise of Napoleon
  • Prominent lieutenant in French Army - military genius
  • 1799- coup d'état – claimed dictatorship
  • Gains vote and trust of the people
  • 1804 – crowned Emperor
  • By the end of the first decade (1812) Napoleon had much of Europe under this control
    • France, Netherlands, Italy, Switzerland
    • Large influence over Russia, Prussia, Austria
napoleon s achievements
Napoleon’s Achievements
  • National Banking System
  • Lycees – Secondary schools
  • Concordat (Agreement) with Pope Pius VII to restore Catholicism to France
  • Napoleonic Code – law code to systemize France
    • Limited liberty but promoted order and authority (social contract)
  • Attempted to maintain control over Haiti and New France – not successful
    • Sold Louisiana territory to Jefferson (now president) in 1803 for 15 million dollars
    • With his sights lost in the New World he turns to try to conquer Britain … doesn’t work
      • Only defeat was the Battle of Trafalgar (naval battle lost to GB – had superior navy)
downfall of napoleon
Downfall of Napoleon
    • Continental System
    • Peninsular war
    • Invasion of Russia
  • April 1814 – Napoleon surrenders – banished to Mediterranean island
  • March 1815 – Returns to France and people support him
    • Defeated at Waterloo – known as Napoleon’s Hundred Days (last 100 days)
      • Exiled to South America this time – dies there
      • Napoleon
  • “Ideas about the basis of power and authority had changed permanently as a result of the French Revolution. More and more, people saw democracy as the best way to ensure equality and justice for all. The French Revolution, then, changed the social attitudes and assumptions that had dominated Europe for centuries. A NEW ERA HAD BEGUN.”
    • Pg. 675
congress of vienna
Congress of Vienna
  • 1814-15
  • Goal: New European Order – “one of collective security and stability for the continent”
  • 8 months and 5 superpowers (Russia, Prussia, Austria, Great Britain, and France)
  • Minister Klemons von Metternich (Austria) emerged as a significant leader at the meetings.
  • Actions:
    • Make small countries around France larger
    • Legitimacy – restore families to the throne
  • Results:
    • C. and E. Europe return to Absolutism
    • FR and GB will be a constitutional monarchy
    • 1815 – Holy Alliance between Russia, Prussia, and Austria
  • LA influenced by other revolutions
  • Haiti (1791)
    • Toussaint L’Ouverture – former slave
    • Slaves + Mulattoes
    • Independence won in 1798
    • Napoleon attempted to restore power over Haiti but failed in 1804
latin american revolutions
Latin American Revolutions
  • Simon Bolivar
    • “The Liberator” – end Spanish domination in South America
    • 1810-1822 – Venezuela, Columbia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia
    • Joined with Jose de San Martin who defeated the Spanish in Argentina and Chile in 1810s
last ten6
Last Ten

Study Guide

Vocabulary Assignment … questions – Due Monday

first ten8
First Ten

Hand in your packet.

Ask questions if you need clarification on topics.



Prep scantron

Short Answer section

work session8
Work Session
  • Unit Test (40 min) + short answer
  • Notebook Check
    • Absolutism DBQ
    • Scientific Revolution DBQ
    • Enlightenment Chart
    • French Revolution Packet
    • Napoleon/Congress of Vienna/LA Rev WS
  • Upfront Magazine/Health Survey
    • Galileo – pg 2
    • WWI – pg 24-27 – outline impact on each area
last ten7
Last Ten

Vocabulary #5 due MONDAY