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Revolutions

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  1. Revolutions American French Industrial

  2. The American Revolution

  3. Britain at Mid-CenturyRise to Global Power • Many colonies all over the world • Won many European conflicts • Good for businesses • Few trade restrictions • Merged with Scotland • King George III

  4. Growth of Constitutional Government • Constitutional Monarchy – government whose power is defined and limited by law • British constitution is many documents • Magna Carta & Bill of Rights • Political Parties • Tories – landed aristocrats, wanted old ways • Whigs – supported Glorious Revolution, tolerance

  5. Cabinet System • Cabinet – parliamentary advisors to the King • Gained status as leaders • Prime Minister • Head of Cabinet • Leader of the majority party in parliament

  6. Politics and Society • Peaceful time • Oligarchy – Government in which the ruling power belongs to a few people • Nobles: “natural” ruling class • Most poor • Middle class grew as merchants or manufacturers

  7. King George III Reasserts Royal Power • 1760 began 60 year reign • Wanted to be a real King – no parliament • Put his friends in Parliament • Thought that Americans should have to pay for defense • Britain losing the colonies discredited the king • Went crazy • Cabinet power was restored

  8. The 13 Colonies • By 1750, 13 prosperous colonies • Britain regulated trade but not enforced • Smuggling was common • Seen as place free of persecution

  9. Growing Discontent • 1763- Relationship between colonies and Britain strained • Brits were running out of money (war) • Saw colonies as way to make money • Taxation without representation

  10. Early Clashes • Boston Massacre – 5 killed • Boston Tea Party – protest tea tax • Colonial reps gathered in Philadelphia • Called: Continental Congress • “The Founding Fathers”

  11. Declaring Independence • Washington and Continental Army • April 1775 – War starts • Brits did well at first • 2nd Continental Congress voted to be free • Jefferson wrote Declaration of Independence • Popular Sovereignty – all gov. power comes from the people • List of grievances • July 4th, 1776 – adopted Declaration

  12. The American Revolution • Loyalists – people in the colonies who supported Britain • CC had little money to pay soldiers • US advantage = fighting on own land • Brits allied with Indians • Freedom to any slave willing to fight for Britain

  13. French Alliance • France was impressed with Americans • Send supplies: ships and soldiers

  14. Treaty of Paris • British army was surrounded at Yorktown • Cornwallis surrenders to Washington • 1783 – recognized independence of the United States

  15. A New Constitution • New Gov: Articles of Confederation • Too weak • Philadelphia 1787 – FF got together again • Wrote Constitution • Federal Republic – power divided between federal and state governments • First 10 Amendments – Bill of Rights • 1789 – became law • Not all were included in “We the People”

  16. The French Revolution

  17. The Old Regime • The Clergy • Known as the first estate • Held a lot of privilege and power • Owned much land, collected taxes, paid nothing • Provided some social services

  18. The Nobles • Known as the second estate • Nobility had gone down but still existed • Didn’t have as much money as most thought • Hated absolutism and royal bureaucracy • Feared the loss of their status

  19. The Third Estate • 27 Million people – Middle class and poor • Bourgeoisie – Middle class • Very diverse group • Resented other two estates • Discontent and wanted change

  20. Economic Troubles • Deficit Spending – A government spending more money than it takes in • King Louis XIV left France in deep debt from wars and personal spending • Poor harvests left people hungry and poor

  21. Failure of Reform • Heirs of Louis XIV weren’t good at reform • Advisors tried to get king to tax 1st and 2nd estates • Estates General Called • First time in 175 years • Nobles wanted to bring monarch under control

  22. Estates General – The Cahiers • Louis had each estate prepare a list of their grievances • Each group of people had very specific dislikes

  23. Tennis Court Oath • Most from 3rd Estate were middle class • Wanted reform for their level • Voting system was biggest concern • 3rd estate broke off and created own assembly • Found meeting hall locked and guarded – moved to Tennis courts • Reformers from 1st and 2nd estates joined

  24. Storming the Bastille • July 14th, 1789 Paris streets were full of people • Went to Bastille to get guns and ammo • Gate didn’t open, riot started • Many killed • Beginning of French Revolution

  25. Revolts in Paris • The Great Fear – rumors of attacks • Fear and famine caused violent attacks • Paris in constant turmoil • Factions – small groups • Factions roamed streets trying to gain power

  26. Moderate Reforms • Feudalism was abolished – equality for citizens • Made declaration of rights of man • Men were free and had natural rights • “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity”

  27. Women Storm Versailles • October 5th – Women march to Versailles yelling “Bread” • Angry at Marie Antoinette for extravagance • Wanted King in Paris, wouldn’t leave till he agreed • King, Marie, son taken to Paris next day and held prisoner for 3 years

  28. Reorganization and Reform • Assembly put French Catholic Church under state control • Many clergy refused to recognize this • Constitution of 1791 set up limited monarchy • Government made more efficient

  29. Political Reforms • All male citizens equal • Limited power of monarch • Establish legislative assembly to make laws • Granted all tax paying males right to elect representatives

  30. Social and Economic Reforms • Abolished privileges of nobility • Ended feudalism • Taxed according to ability to pay • Forbade guilds and unions • Compensated nobles for land taken by peasants

  31. Religious Reforms • Freedom of Religion • Took over and sold church lands • Placed church under state control • Clergy must be elected and government employees

  32. Louis’ Failed Flight • King, Queen, and son tried to escape • Dressed as servant, governess, and the child • Caught and returned to Paris

  33. Reaction Outside of France • Widespread fear from stories told by émigrés • Émigrés – people who fled France • Other Rulers condemned, vowed to protect France • French began fighting themselves • Radical moved fight to battlefields

  34. Radical Days • Violent outbreaks • Radicals took control • Suffrage – Right to vote • Suffrage for all male citizens • New constitution set up a Republic • King put on trial as traitor, convicted • Beheaded January 1793 • Marie Antoinette beheaded in October

  35. Convention Defends the Republic • At War on all fronts • Committee of Public Safety made to save the Revolution • All citizens required to help the war effort • Robespierre • Lawyer and Politician • “Incorruptible” and a tyrant • Chief leader of Reign of Terror

  36. Reign of Terror • July 1793 to July 1794 • Hasty trials and many death sentences • 40,000 people died, mostly peasants • False accusations or mistaken identity • Convention turned on Committee • Robespierre was beheaded

  37. Reaction and the Directory • Set up a new, more moderate Constitution • Five man directory, two house legislator • Directory in power for four years • People grew discontent again • Looking for someone to lead

  38. Born in Corsica Trained early in military Rose as an officer in the military Had several successes, fueled his ambition Moved from general to political leader Napoleon Bonaparte

  39. Napoleon • Overthrew the government and took title of Consul for life • Two years later became Emperor • Every time moved up, held a vote • Plebiscite – ballot in which voters say yes or no

  40. France Under Napoleon • Reforms • Controlled prices, encouraged industry • Made peace with Catholic Church • All classes of people liked him • Napoleonic Code • New code of laws • Based on law, tolerance, advancement based on merit

  41. Building an Empire • The Grand Empire • Annexed – Added • Took over and ruled by force • Put friends and relatives on thrones of Europe • Made allies with other rulers

  42. France vs. Britain • Held off Napoleon with sea power • Set up blockade • Blockade – shutting off ports or supplies from moving • Scarcity of goods made prices in France rise • People got upset

  43. Nationalism • People saw him as foreign oppressors • Nationalism lead to revolts

  44. Resistence in Spain • Brother, Joseph Bonaparte was King of Spain • People were loyal to former king • Guerrilla warfare – hit and run raids • Kept lots of French soldiers occupied.

  45. War with Austria • Spanish resistance encouraged Austrians • Beat them several times • Divorced his wife to marry Austrian princess to claim lands

  46. Defeat in Russia • Russians were not happy with Napoleon • 1812- 40,000 French invade Russia • Russians retreated, burning everything “Scorched Earth” • Napoleon couldn’t feed troops, turned around • 1000 mile retreat killed many

  47. Downfall of Napoleon • Exile and Return • Abdicated – Stepped down from power • Exiled to Elba – island in Mediterranean • Louis XVIII became King • Accepted some of things from Revolution • Many people got upset and wanted revenge • Napoleon escaped and returned to France • March 1815 – Napoleon returns and Louis flees

  48. Battle of Waterloo • Only in power for 100 days • British and Prussian forces crushed the French • Defeated – forced to abdicate and exiled again

  49. Legacy of Napoleon • Revolutionist or Terrorist? • Consolidated government • Citizens had more rights • Spread the idea of Revolution • Sparked Nationalist feelings across Europe • Sold Louisiana Territory to America

  50. Congress of Vienna • Gathering of Leaders • Met for 10 months • Leaders of Europe • Austria, Russia, Britain, France