Antebellum Reform Movements - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  1. Unit 5 - The Era of Good Feelings and the Age of Jackson APUSH Mrs. Baker Antebellum Reform Movements

  2. In what ways did the Second Great Awakening and religion influence the reform movements of the period 1820 to 1860? Religious Revivalism Social Reforms & Redefining the Ideal of Equality Education Temperance Abolitionism Asylum & Penal Reform Women’s Rights

  3. The Second Great Awakening

  4. The Rise of Popular Religion In France, I had almost always seen the spirit of religion and the spirit of freedom pursuing courses diametrically opposed to each other; but in America, I found that they were intimately united, and that they reigned in common over the same country… Religion was the foremost of the political institutions of the United States. -- Alexis de Tocqueville, 1832 In what ways did the Second Great Awakening and religion influence the reform movements of the period 1820 to 1860?

  5. “the benevolent Empire”: 1825 - 1846

  6. Charles G. Finney (1792 – 1895) “The ranges of tents, the fires, reflecting light…; the candles and lamps illuminating the encampment; hundreds moving to and fro…;the preaching, praying, singing, and shouting,… like the sound of many waters, was enough to swallow up all the powers of contemplation.” “Soul-shaking conversions”

  7. Presbyterian minister • Started a series of revivalism which appealed to people’s emotions and fear of damnation. • Persuaded 1000s to publicly declare their revived faith. • Preached that all were free to be saved through faith and hard work. • Ideals appealed to the rising middle class. • Result of Finneyism: • Western NY became known as the “burned-over district” Charles G. Finney

  8. Revival Meeting: “Hell-and-brimstone” revivals

  9. Revivalism in New York The “Burned-over-District”

  10. The Mormons:The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints • 1823: Golden Tablets • 1830: Book of Mormon • 1844: Murdered in Carthage, IL John Smith (1805 – 1844)

  11. The Mormon “Trek”

  12. Violence Against Mormons

  13. The Final Leg of the “Trek” • Traveled to the western frontier to escape persecution • Created dessert community • New Zion • Salt Lake City, Utah • Cooperative social organization helped Mormons prosper in the wilderness. Brigham Young (1801 – 1877)

  14. In what ways did the Second Great Awakening and religion influence the reform movements of the period 1820 to 1860? Religious Revivalism Social Reforms & Redefining the Ideal of Equality Education Temperance Abolitionism Asylum & Penal Reform Women’s Rights

  15. Transcendentalism Communal Experiments Arts and Literature Culture: Ideas, the Arts, & Literature

  16. Transcendentalism

  17. Romantic movement in art and literature • Stressed intuition and feelings, individual acts of heroism, and the study of nature. • Concurrently (1820 – 1860), romantic and idealistic themes were expressed by transcendentalists. • Small group of New England writers and reformers. European Romanticism

  18. Liberation from understanding and the cultivation of reasoning “Transcend” the limits of intellect and all the emotion, the SOUL, to create an original relationship with the Universe Transcendentalism:European Romanticism

  19. Man must acknowledge a body of moral truths that were intuitive and must TRANSCEND more sensational proof: • The infinite benevolence of God. • The infinite benevolence of nature. • The divinity of man. • They instinctively rejected all secular authority and the authority of organized churches and the Scriptures, of law, or of conventions Transcendentalist Thinking

  20. Therefore, if man was divine, it would be wicked that he should be held in slavery, or his soul corrupted by superstition, or his mind clouded by ignorance!! • Thus, the role of the reformer was to restore man to that divinity which God had endowed them. Transcendentalism

  21. Give freedom to the slave. • Give well-being to the poor and the miserable. • Give learning to the ignorant. • Give health to the sick. • Give peace and justice to society. Transcendentalist Agenda

  22. Intellectuals/Writers:Concord, MA Henry David Thoreau Ralph Waldo Emerson Resistance to Civil Disobedience (1849) Nature (1832) “The American Scholar” (1837) Self-Reliance (1841) Walden (1854)

  23. Communal Experiments

  24. Brooks Farm:Transcendentalist Community George Ripley (1802 – 1880) Brook Farm West Roxbury, MA

  25. Transcendentalist Critic:Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804 – 1864) • Their pursuit of the ideal led to a distorted view of human nature and possibilities: • The Blithedale Romance • One should accept the world as imperfect place: • Scarlett Letter • House of the Seven Gables

  26. Communal Experiments

  27. If you will take up your crosses against the works of generations, and follow Christ in theregeneration, God will cleanse you from allunrighteousness. Remember the cries of those who are in need and trouble, that when you are in trouble, God may hear your cries. If you improve in one talent, God will give you more. Shakers:Mother Ann Lee (1736 – 1784)

  28. Shaker Hymn 'Tis the gift to be simple, 'Tis the gift to be free,'Tis the gift to come down where you ought to be,And when we find ourselves in the place just right,'Twill be in the valley of love and delight.When true simplicity is gainedTo bow and to bend we shan't be ashamed,To turn, turn will be our delight,'Till by turning, turning we come round right.

  29. Shaker Meeting

  30. Shaker Simplicity & Utility

  31. Robert Owen (1771 – 1858)New Harmony, Indiana Utopian Socialist “Village of Cooperation”

  32. Original Plans for New Harmony, IN

  33. The Oneida CommunityNew York, 1848 • Millenarianism(Millerites) • The 2nd coming of Christ had already occurred. • Humans were no longer obliged to follow the moral rules of the past. • all residents married to each other. • Carefully regulated “free love.” John Humphrey Noyes (1811 – 1886)

  34. Arts and Literature

  35. Transcendentalist thinking Westward expansion American nationalism Racism and Native Americans Concern for political extremism The price paid for progress and the advances of civilization Issues & Themes addressed

  36. Antebellum American Art The Hudson School 1820 - 1870

  37. These artists captured the undiluted power of nature • Paint the nation’s most spectacular and undeveloped areas [the new Garden of Eden]. • Nature was the best source of wisdom &fulfillment. • They created visual embodiments of the ideals of the Transcendentalists. • Painting is the vehicle through which the universal mind could reach the mind of mankind. • Art is the agent of moral & spiritual transformation. Background

  38. Paint grand, scenic vistas Humans are an insignificant [even non-existent] part of the picture. Experiment with affects of light on water and sky. Symbol of the school = Broken Tree Stump Characteristics of the Hudson River School A new art for a new land.

  39. Frederic ChurchNiagara, 1857

  40. Thomas ColeView of the Catskills – Early Autumn (1837)

  41. Thomas ColeThe Course of Empire: The Savage State

  42. The Course of Empire – The Arcadian or the Pastoral State (1836)

  43. The Course of Empire – Consummation (1836)

  44. The Course of Empire – Destruction (1836)

  45. The Course of Empire – Desolation (1836)

  46. Architecture The Classical Styles of Greece & Rome

  47. U.S. Customs House, 1836

  48. Jefferson Rotunda (1819 – 1826)

  49. A new distinctively American literature was created during this time period. • Result of the new nationalistic pride and desire to read about America. • Influential Authors: • Transcendentalists • Washington Irving • James Fenimore Cooper • Leatherstocking Tales • The Last of the Mohicans • Nathaniel Hawthorne • The Scarlet Letter (1850) • Herman Melville • Moby Dick (1855) Literature

  50. Reforming Society