The “Other” Liberation Movements 1960s – 1970s
The Two Major Movements of the 50s – 60s • Anti-War Protestors with the Vietnam Conflict • Civil Rights and its off-shoots
An Era of Activism • The Women’s Movement • Ethnic Minorities Seek Equality • The Counterculture • Environmental and Consumer Movements
1960s: “The Times They Are A-Changin’”– Bob Dylan song • Women’s Rights had been an issue since the 1880s • Right to vote • Right to property • Right to self-determination
Feminism • Theory of political, economic, and social equality between men and women. • Feminists believe in that and take action to bring it about.
1960s: Fighting against the Stereotype • The reality was many women could not be the stay-at-home moms. • Necessity to work • With skills and an education – DESIRE to work
Education and Employment • 1950: Only 25% of liberal arts graduates were women. • 1970: 43% were women
Most employers were “reluctant” to hire women. • Felt the investment in them was wasted since they would leave to marry and have children. • Felt a woman’s place was in the home. Work to “catch” a husband. • Felt customers/ fellow employees would be “uncomfortable” with women in authority.
Wages were unequal • 1963: women earned 59-cents to every dollar a man made. • 1973: Women earned 57-cents to every dollar a man made!
Frustration of women that wanted equal rights! • Had a “how-to” model with the Civil Rights Movement • But often treated as second-class citizens in the Civil Rights Movement. • Used courts to get equality at work. • EEOC (Equal Employment Opportunity Commission)
Women’s Groups Organize • Support Groups • NOW (National Organization of Women) • 1966 • Pressure govt. and EEOC to take women’s issues more seriously.
NOW • Sought fair pay and equal job opportunities. • Attacked sexist attitudes in media and advertising. • Sought to educate people that parenting and house responsibilities are for men and women.
NOW • Seen by some as too radical • Particularly under Gloria Steinem • Seen as not active for poor women or women of color. • Mainly white, middle-class women issues
Impact of Feminism 1972: MS magazine 300,000 copies sold in 8 days.
A Shift In Attitudes • Shirley Chisolm – ran for president in 1972. • Went down in primaries. • 1984 Geraldine Ferraro was first woman nominated for vice president (Democrat)
A Shift in Attitudes • Brought public awareness to the need for childcare facilities. • Shelters for battered women • Better law enforcement • Women’s health concerns • Sexual harassment
Roe v. Wade • NOW pointed out the different laws restricting abortion through the country. • Rich women who had an unwanted pregnancy could just travel to another state. • But what about poor women?
US Supreme CourtRoe v. Wade • 1973 • Said abortion laws were restrictive against poor women. • Invaded privacy of women. • IMPORTANT: • No restrictions in the first trimester of pregnancy. • BUT later pregnancies could be regulated by the states.
Roe v. Wade today • STILL quite controversial!
ERA: Equal Rights Amendment • Attempt to change the Constitution to say that discrimination based on sex was illegal. • Needed 38 states to ratify the amendment to become national law. • They made it to 35. • Nebraska ratified it and then changed their mind and de-ratified ERA. • Only state to do that.
Opposition to the Women’s Movement • Phyllis Schlafly • “It won’t do anything to help women and it will take away from women the rights they already have.”
Opposition to ERA • “as the right of a wife to be supported by her husband, the right of a woman to be exempted from military combat and the right … to go to a single-sex college.”
Schlafly’s rhetoric • Women would lose alimony. • Women would have to have co-ed bathrooms. • Women being in the military. • It did the job of scaring women and ended ERA.
Opposition to the Women’s Movement • Some women felt ERA would force them from their traditional roles. • Some men also protested feminism.
Latinos Fight for Change • Latinos lived in many parts of the US before whites arrived. (California, Texas, N. Mexico, Arizona) • But were frequently denied equal rights and lost their land.
Latino Population • 1970: 14.9 million Americans originating from Central / South America. • 1960s: Hundreds of thousands of Cubans fled Fidel Castro.
Chicanos • Mexican Americans • 1960s: El Movimiento Chicano - • Movement to end discrimination in education, employment and the legal system.
Cultural Identity • 1968: 10,000 Mexican – American students walked out of their schools. • Demand for culturally sensitive courses, better facilities and Latino teachers and counselors.
Organizing to Fight Discrimination • Union: United Farm Workers. • 1965: 1,700 members • Leader: Cesar Chavez • 1927 – 1993 • Normal life until 10. • After military service became a union leader. • Used MLK’s nonviolent methods.
Cesar Chavez • Organized national boycotts of • Grapes • Lettuce Wanted better wages, safer working conditions, union recognition by owners of fields.
Other Chicano Movements • Political power with La Raza Unida in 1970. • Elected Chicanos to government • Advocated for better housing and jobs. • Encouraging Latinos to become lawyers
Asian Americans Fight Discrimination • Even though Asian Americans typically had better educations, they were paid less. • White man paid $51 • Chinese man paid $38 • Japanese man paid $43
Asian Americans fight for Economic and Political Advancement • Japanese American citizens League (JACL) • Sought reparations and apology for Japanese American internment in WWII. • Took until 1988 for the US to do that!
Asian Americans fight for Economic and Political Advancement • When Hawaii became a state in 1959, • Hiram Leong Fong first Chinese American sent to the Senate. • Daniel K. Inouye – first Japanese American in Congress
Native Americans Face Unique Problems • Despite different languages and cultures – American culture has always tended to lump Native Americans as one group.
Native Americans Face Unique Problems • US government attempts to destroy the traditional lifestyle. • Genocide in 1800s. • Removal Programs • Missionaries trying to make Indians “white”
Native Americans Face Unique Problems • Denied citizenship until 1924. • 1948 – allowed the right to vote. • Routinely denied equal opportunities.
Native Americans Face Unique Problems • Poor living conditions • High rates of unemployment • Alcoholism • Suicide • Shorter lifespan than other Americans
Native Americans Face Unique Problems • Beginning in 1961 Native peoples began to be paid for the confiscation of their lands by the US govt. • Cherokee, Crow, Nez Perce
Not all Native Americans accepted the money • They wanted their lands back!
Attempts to regain lands • Taos Pueblos got their sacred Blue Lake and 48,000 acres of New Mexico. • Lakota Sioux pressed for the return of the Black Hills in South Dakota. (Mount Rushmore) • Denied
AIM: American Indian Movement • 1968 • Russell Means • Dennis Banks
Goals of AIM • Fight for better treaty rights • Better conditions and opportunities • Issues for Native Americans living in cities • Street patrols • Encouraging racial and cultural pride in young people.
Goals of AIM • Autonomy (self-government on the reservations) • Control of natural resources on Native lands. • Restoration of lands illegally taken.
AIM • Adopted methods of militant groups like the Black Panthers. • “Power comes from the barrel of a gun.”
AIM: Confronting the Government • 1972: Broken Treaties Caravan and taking over the Bureau of Indian Affairs’ office for six days. • 1969: Occupied Alcatraz Island in San Francisco harbor. • Stand-off lasted for a year and half.
AIM: Wounded Knee • 1973, Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota. • Poorest reservation • Over half of people on welfare.
Wounded Knee’s History • 1890 – US troops massacred 200 Sioux men, women and children.
AIM’s Russell Means directed a takeover • Means and his followers refused to leave the village until the US government would agree to investigate the treatment of Indians and the poor living conditions.
Federal Marshals and FBI respond • Put the village under siege. • Arrested 300 people and reporters. • Two AIM members were killed. • May – AIM agreed to leave and turn in their guns – if govt. would investigate conditions.