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The Hispanic Southwest

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  1. The Hispanic Southwest

  2. After 10+ years of fighting Mexico won independence from Spain However, in the following years Mexico experienced political chaos Mexican Independence

  3. Map of North America After Mexican Independence

  4. The far Northern territories of California, New Mexico, and Texas were part of Mexico however, these areas experienced a great deal of political independence…..why?.... Northern Territories

  5. Explore the map on the next page • Note the location of New Mexico, California, and Texas • Locate the capital Mexico city • Why did these areas of Texas, New Mexico, and California experience a lot of political independence at this time from Mexico? Thinking Critically

  6. These areas were located about 1,000 miles from Mexico City making them geographically removed from the government in Mexico Answer

  7. Not very populated • Native Americans and Hispanic settlers • Mexican Frontier as it was called was threatened in several ways: • Settlements in NM and Texas faced Apache, Comanche, and other Native American attacks • Westward expansion from the U.S.A. • Southward expansion from Russians (1780’s Russia began Colonizing Alaska) The Northern Territories (NM, CA, TX)

  8. Russian threat to Mexico’s Northern Territories of southward expansion U.S. threat of westward expansion

  9. The Spanish expanded the territory of New Spain by establishing missions on the northern frontier Purpose of these state-financed (?) missions was to spread Christianity and Spanish culture to Native Americans Spanish Missions

  10. Missions controlled a lot of land • These lands contained: • Grazed cattle • Sheep • Horses • Native Americans tended to these animals and did other work at the missions “under conditions of near slavery” Mission’s Control

  11. Infographic page 261

  12. By 1800’s mission system was in decline • Little financial support during the struggle for independence • Many Mexicans believed that state –sponsored religious institutions was inappropriate for a republic • 1834-Mexico’s government secularized –transferred power from religious to civil (government)control • Land then went to private owners Mission’s Decline

  13. The goal of the reformers was to divide mission lands up and give them to Native Americans However, most lands ended up in the hands of cattle ranchers who relied on Native Americans for labor

  14. Frontier presidios (forts) became weak due to labor shortages & reduced funding This left frontier settlers vulnerable to attack Forts

  15. Secularization of the missions- freed up land for cattle ranching, which became the main money maker • Rancheros or ranchers- owned a lot of land • These white Spanish “Dons” and their families made up 10% of California’s population • However, they controlled California society California

  16. Beneath these Elites was a class of mestizos Mestizo- persons of mixed European and Native American ancestry Some were “vaqueros” (cowboys) Many were skilled craftspeople Middle Class

  17. At the bottom of society Suffered high mortality rates under the Spanish rule Often exploited by the new class of rancheros Many escaped to live on the edges of California’s frontier to live with independent Native Americans The Native americans

  18. In California men played a powerful role in the family Only men could vote or hold elective office Men’s role

  19. Women, especially upper-class women had some rights and privileges as well Unlike American women of the era, Hispanic women retained control over their own property after marriage and could seek legal redress from the courts Women’s role

  20. New Mexico included present day Arizona • Did not change much immediately after Mexico’s independence • Remained rural • Sheep ranching thrived in dry climate New MExico

  21. 1820’s Navajo and Apache launched a series of attacks on New Mexico • The Mexican Government was unable to provide protection • This continued a growing dissatisfaction with the national government • 1837, Pueblo people and hispanic settlers North of Santa Fe rebelled • Killed the unpopular territorial governor • 16 other government officials killed New Mexico Attacked

  22. After Mexican independence American influence in these territories increased • Immigration increased • Trade increased • Traders from U.S., Russia and other countries arrived in California ports to exchange manufactured goods for sea otter skins and hides and tallow (?) derived from cattle American influence

  23. Tallow- A hard fatty substance made from rendered animal fat, used in making candles and soap

  24. Governor of CA Juan Bautista Alvarado • - hoping to attract settlers granted 50,000 acres to John Sutter (A German Immigrant) • Sutter built a trading post and cattle ranch • Sutter’s Fort • More settlers arrived- differences between CA and Mexico increased • Tension between Mexican National government and territorial governments • Still only 700 Americans at this time (1845) Settlers

  25. William Becknell opened this trail • Connected Independence , Missouri to Santa Fe American Manufactured goods in exchange silver, mules, and furs Santa Fe Trail

  26. Buffer zone between Mexico and the U.S. Texas Sparsely (lightly) populated Settlers faced recurring raids from Comanche and Apache Native Americans Most of the 2,500 Spanish speaking Tejanos in towns like San Antonio and Goliad Americans began to flood the territory Texas

  27. Decision by Mexican government to allow Americans to settle their ultimately led to revolt against Mexican rule Independence for Texas New Mexico and California remained Mexican territory for 25 years Texas where Americans soon outnumbered Tejanos broke away after 15 years Revolt

  28. Unable to persuade its own citizens to settle their • Mexico continued policy of letting foreigners settle there • 1823-1825 Mexico passed three colonization laws –offered cheap land to anyone who came to Texas • Last law gave a 10 year tax exemption • but required foreigners to become Mexican citizens, abide by Mexican law, and convert to Roman Catholicism Independence for texas

  29. Empresarios- “agents” &“contractors” • National Colonization Act-Mexico gave 26 empresarios large amounts of Texas land • In exchange emprasarios promised to fill the land with a certain number of settlers • Empresarios governed these colonies they established Empresarios & Settlers

  30. Most successful empresario • Founded the town Washington-on-the-Brazos • By mid1830’s persuaded 1,500 American families to immigrate Stephen Austin

  31. Americans accepted Mexican citizenship at first However, the Mexican government thought American citizens would adopt Mexican customs and see Mexico as their country –but few did Many Mexicans distrusted the settlers because of this Americanizing texas

  32. Brother of empresario Haden Edwards led a rebellion against Mexican authority • Disputed regional control over who controlled the region Mexico or the empresarios • Edwards declared that the settlements of Americans in Texas now constituted the independent nation of Fredonia • The rebellion dispersed when Mexican troops threatened however Benjamin Edwards

  33. Most settlers ignored Edward’s call for rebellion • However, Mexican government feared it signaled an American plot to acquire Texas • Closed their borders to further American immigration and banned importing slave labor • Also taxed goods on imports from foreign countries • Hoping to discourage trade with the U.S. Mexico’s reaction

  34. Furious! • Mexican government making rules for them • Making goods more expensive • Saw no need to obey a government they hardly considered their own Settler’s reaction

  35. Tensions existing- settlers met at 2 conventions in town of San Felipe 1832 & 1833 At first convention settlers chose Stephen Austin convention’s president 1st convention asked Mexico to reopen its borders to American immigrants and loosen taxes on imports 2nd convention recommended separating Texas from Coahuila and creating a new Mexican state Texas Goes To War

  36. Convention sent Stephen Austin to negotiate with the Mexican Government • Visited Mexican president Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna got him to agree to some demands • While returning home he was arrested • Taken to Mexico city jailed for treason • President Santa Anna denounced Mexico’s constitution and declared himself Dictator • Austin urged Texans to organize army and they did Causes of War

  37. Mexican army serious problems • Political instability in Mexico denied the army sound leadership, training and support • Texan army first victory –Mexican force demanded surrender but had no authority to attack so they retreated rebels (Texans) followed and attacked (Decmeber 1835) • March 2, 1836 Texas declared independence drafted a new constitution derived from U.S. and protected slavery Early battles

  38. Former governor of Tennessee Sam Houston became Texans military leader • Meantime Santa Anna organized 6,000 men to crush rebels • When Santa Anna’s forced got to San Antonio they found 180+ Texas rebels holed up in an abandoned Catholic mission called the “Alamo” • Under command of William B. Travis small force wanted to delay Santa Anna’s army so Houston’s army could prepare • Called for reinforcements The Alamo

  39. Sam houston

  40. William b. travis

  41. Call went largely unanswered- only 32 settlers came from Gonzales Texans held off Santa Anna’s men for 13 days This was when Texas government official declared independence (March 6, 1836) When Santa Anna’s men stormed the Alamo they still fought them off for 6 hours killing 600 of Anna’s men before being overrun Defenders of the Alamo bought Houston’s men nearly 2 weeks Alamo

  42. goliad

  43. 2 weeks after the Alamo • Texan troops led by James W. Fannin • Surrendered- hoping the Mexicans would disarm them and expel them from Texas • Fannin appealed to Santa Anna for clemency (leniency) • Santa Anna demanded execution • Firing squad executed 300 men • The losses at Alamo and Goliad devastated Texans but also united them in support of their new country goliad

  44. Texan army in disarray • Sam Houston needed more time to recruit new members • Rather fight he chose to retreat to buy more time • Waited for Santa Anna to make a mistake • Mistake occurred April 21 when both armies were encamped by the San Jacinto River near present day Houston (named for Sam Houston) The battle of San Jacinto

  45. No longer saw the Texas army as a threat • So he let his men sleep in the afternoon • Confident the Texans would wait until the next day to attack • Texans were hungry for revenge • Soldiers convinced the officers • Snuck up a hill and crept up on Santa Anna’s sleeping soldiers Santa Anna’s mistake

  46. The surprise attack threw Santa Anna’s men into a panic Battle of San Jacinto lasted 20 minutes altough killing went on for hours The troops shouted “Remember the Alamo” and “Remember Goliad” Attacked with knives, guns, and clubs Hundreds killed 700 taken prisoner Texans only suffered 9 killed and 34 wounded

  47. Among those captured was Santa Anna Houston forced Santa Anna to order his men out of the country and sign a treaty recognizing the independence of Texas The Mexican congress refused to accept the treaty but did not launch another military campaign Texas Won

  48. September 1836 newly independent republic held first elections- Sam Houston was elected president • Also voted 3,277 to 91 in favor of annexation-becoming part of the United States • Many Northern Congressmen opposed admitting Texas as a slave state The Republic of TExas