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CHAPTER. 4. QUIT. First Age of Empires, 1570 B.C. –200 B.C. Chapter Overview. Time Line. The Empires of Egypt and Nubia Collide. 1. SECTION. Assyria Dominates the Fertile Crescent. 2. SECTION. Persia Unites Many Lands . 3. SECTION. GRAPH. An Empire Unifies China. 4. SECTION.
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CHAPTER 4 QUIT First Age of Empires, 1570 B.C.–200 B.C. Chapter Overview Time Line The Empires of Egypt and Nubia Collide 1 SECTION Assyria Dominates the Fertile Crescent 2 SECTION Persia Unites Many Lands 3 SECTION GRAPH An Empire Unifies China 4 SECTION Visual Summary
CHAPTER 4 Chapter Overview HOME First Age of Empires, 1570 B.C.–200 B.C. A series of empires, each one bigger than the last, forges regional unity among the old heartlands of civilization from the Nile to the Iranian Plateau. Meanwhile, the Chinese Empire emerges as a cultural and political unit.
CHAPTER 4 HOME First Age of Empires, 1570 B.C.–200 B.C. Time Line 206 B.C.The Qin Dynasty of China collapses. Civil War follows. 1544 B.C.Egypt’s New Kingdom established. 751 B.C.Nubian kingdom of Kush conquers Egypt. 1570 B.C. 200 B.C. 850 B.C.Assyrian Empire begins its rise to power. 550 B.C.Persian Empire flourishes under Cyrus.
1 HOME The Empires of Egypt and Nubia Collide Key Idea The New Kingdom forges a brilliant Egyptian Empire, which is eventually conquered and ruled by the Nubians of Kush. The Kushites later establish an Egyptian-style kingdom of their own farther south. Overview Assessment
1 TERMS & NAMES MAIN IDEA HOME The Empires of Egypt and Nubia Collide Overview •Hyksos •New Kingdom •Hatshepsut •Thutmose III •Nubia •Ramses II •Kush •Piankhi •Meroë WHY IT MATTERS NOW Two empires along the Nile, Egypt and Nubia, forged commercial, cultural, and political connections. Neighboring civilizations participate in cultural exchange as well as conflict. Assessment
1 1 Section Assessment 1570 B.C. A.D. 350 Egyptian New Kingdom Aksum defeats Meroë. HOME The Empires of Egypt and Nubia Collide 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List important events in the history of Egypt and Kush. 1285 B.C. Battle of Kadesh 1200 B.C. People of the Sea attack Egypt. 950-730 B.C. Libyans rule Egypt. 1472 B.C. Hatshepsut makes herself pharaoh. 1290-1224 B.C. Ramses II rules. 1100 B.C.Kush regains independence. 671 B.C.Kushites lose Egypt to Assyrians. continued . . .
1 HOME The Empires of Egypt and Nubia Collide 1 Section Assessment 2. Read the temple inscription written by Piankhi. Explain how an Egyptian might have written the inscription differently.THINK ABOUT •what bias Piankhi had •how Egyptians benefited from Piankhi’s invasion •why Egyptians might have disagreed with Piankhi ANSWER An Egyptian might have praised the Kushites for restoring the Egyptian way of life or criticized them for ruling in place of Egyptians. Possible Response: continued . . .
1 HOME The Empires of Egypt and Nubia Collide 1 Section Assessment 3. How did Egypt and Nubia strengthen each other at various times in their histories?THINK ABOUT • the role of trade and the movement of goods • the impact of military movements • the influence of cultural developments ANSWER • Under Thutmose III, Egyptians brought gold, cattle, ivory, and slaves from Nubia. • Under Egyptian control, Nubian princes adopted much of Egyptian culture. • When Nubians seized power over Egypt, they tried to restore the Egyptian way of life. Possible Responses: End of Section 1
2 HOME Assyria Dominates the Fertile Crescent Key Idea The Assyrians absorb Egypt into a Mesopotamian Empire and perfect terror as a means of rule. The Chaldeans and Medes finally annihilate Assyria, only to be swallowed up by the growing Persian Empire. Overview Assessment
2 TERMS & NAMES MAIN IDEA HOME Assyria Dominates the Fertile Crescent Overview •Assyria •Sennacherib •Nineveh •Ashurbanipal •Medes •Chaldeans • Nebuchadnezzar WHY IT MATTERS NOW Assyria developed a military machine, conquered an empire, and established imperial administration. Some leaders still use military force to extend their rule, stamp out opposition, and gain wealth and power. Assessment
2 2 Section Assessment Assyrian Military Power Causes of Increasing Power Causes of Declining Power 1. 1. 2. 2. 3. 3. HOME Assyria Dominates the Fertile Crescent 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Identify the causes of the rise and of the decline of Assyrian power. Need to defend against attacks Hatred by conquered people Use of iron-working technology Overextension Success at advanced planning Unity among Assyria’s foes continued . . .
2 HOME Assyria Dominates the Fertile Crescent 2 Section Assessment 2. The Assyrians relied almost exclusively on military power in building, maintaining, and ruling their empire. Explain whether you think this was a good strategy. THINK ABOUT •the causes of Assyrian military power •the stability of the empire •the methods that empires use to become stronger ANSWER Empires often rely on military power. Assyrians relied on a technological advantage that other countries could soon copy and that their brutal methods made them unpopular rulers. Possible Response: End of Section 2
3 HOME Persia Unites Many Lands GRAPH Key Idea Persian kings forge a multicultural empire stretching from the Indus River to the Nile. Persia pioneers enlighten tolerance in government and support the Zoroastrian religion. Overview Assessment
3 TERMS & NAMES MAIN IDEA HOME Persia Unites Many Lands GRAPH Overview •Cyrus •Cambyses •Darius • satrap •Royal Road •Zoroaster WHY IT MATTERS NOW The Persian Empire ruled with tolerance and wise government. Tolerance and wise government are characteristics of the most successful methods of rule. Assessment
3 Darius Only Cyrus Only HOME Persia Unites Many Lands GRAPH 3 Section Assessment 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Explain the similarities and differences between Cyrus and Darius. Both Cyrus founded the Persian Empire and allowed the Jews to return to Jerusalem. Both ruled fairly and expanded the empire. Darius seized power and introduced coins of standard value. continued . . .
3 HOME Persia Unites Many Lands GRAPH 3 Section Assessment 2. Why do you think Persians and other peoples were able to turn their thoughts to religion? THINK ABOUT •past history of peoples in the Fertile Crescent •living conditions in the Persian Empire •role of leaders in the Persian Empire ANSWER The tolerance displayed by Cyrus and other Persian rulers probably encouraged people to practice their religious beliefs. Possible Response: continued . . .
3 HOME Persia Unites Many Lands GRAPH 3 Section Assessment 3. How did Darius’s methods of administration give stability to his empire?THINK ABOUT •the structure of the empire •policy of tolerance •the role of the satrap ANSWER • He divided the empire into 20 provinces. • He appointed a satrap for each province. • He tolerated other religions, languages, and local laws. • Road system and coinage also helped give stability to the empire. Possible Responses: End of Section 3
4 HOME An Empire Unifies China Key Idea Amid the social chaos of the crumbling Zhou Dynasty, Chinese philosophers develop three major schools of thought. Shi Huangdi unifies China in a brutal military campaign and builds the Great Wall. Overview Assessment
4 TERMS & NAMES MAIN IDEA HOME An Empire Unifies China Overview •Confucius • filial piety • bureaucracy • Daoism • Legalism •I Ching • yin and yang • Qin dynasty • Shi Huangdi • autocracy WHY IT MATTERS NOW The social disorder of the warring states contributed to Chinese philosophy and unification. The people, events, and ideas that shaped China’s early history continue to influence China’s role in today’s world. Assessment
4 Philosophy Politics Chaos of the warring states Cities HOME An Empire Unifies China 4 Section Assessment 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Explain how the chaos of the warring states affected Chinese philosophy, politics, and the growth of cities. Confucius, the Legalists, and Laozi offered solutions to the chaos. Shi Huangdi took harsh steps to impose unity and stability. People moved to them for protection. continued . . .
4 HOME An Empire Unifies China 4 Section Assessment 2. In 1776, the American Declaration of Independence declared that “all men are created equal.” How would followers of the three philosophical traditions in China react to that statement? THINK ABOUT •their views on equality •views on opposition to government ANSWER • Confucius would reject the statement because he tried to restore an unequal social order. • Legalists might have objected for justifying opposition to government. • Laozi might have agreed, believing that governments tend to enforce inequality. Possible Responses: continued . . .
4 HOME An Empire Unifies China 4 Section Assessment 3. Compare and contrast the monumental projects of the Persian Royal Road and the Great Wall of China. Explain their purposes, how they changed the environment, and how they affected the peoples living there. ANSWER •Royal Road—built to improve communication and transportation, connected peoples and regions •Great Wall—built to prevent attacks by nomads, helped define borders, helped unify people, established barrier where no natural barrier had been Possible Responses: End of Section 4