Section 1: Expansion in the Pacific • Imperialism: The quest for colonial empires. • Between 1876 and 1915, a handful of industrialized nations seized control of vast areas of Africa, Asia and Latin America. • Imperialism was driven by a need for markets and raw materials, as well as power and prestige.
Imperialism • Henry Cabot Lodge stressed the importance of the United States becoming involved in colonization. • As American industrial production increased in the late 1800’s, many Americans began to support imperialism.
Samoa • The United States, Britain and Germany would first clash in Samoa in 1889. • Ten years later, America won control over Eastern Samoa and Germany gained control over Western Samoa.
Hawaii • The Hawaiian Islands had a tropical climate and fertile, lava-enriched soil. • In 1778, a British explorer visited the islands and renamed them the Sandwich Islands. • Hawaiian chief Kamehameha united the eight major islands during his reign.
Hawaii • This monarchy held power until 1893. • The Hawaiian Islands would be a great place to build a naval base and coaling stations for ships traveling to Asia. • During the 1800’s, ships began arriving in Hawaii more often.
Hawaii • The ships brought missionaries, settlers and traders. • They also brought diseases that reduced the population from 300,000 to fewer than 150,000.
Hawaii • American investors in the sugar industry gradually increased their control over the islands. • Hawaii sugar production rose and with it, American influence. • Expansion of the sugar industry meant more workers were needed.
Hawaii • Planters brought in thousands of Japanese and Chinese workers, who would eventually outnumber the Hawaiians. • Americans had a growing influence of the Hawaiian king Kalakaua, who took the throne in 1874.
Hawaii • An 1875 treaty exempted Hawaiian sugar from U.S. Tariffs. • In exchange, Hawaii promised not to grant territory or special privileges in the islands to any other nation.
Hawaii • In 1891, Kalakaua died and his sister, Liliukalani took power. • She attempted to bring the government back under control of Hawaiians. • She was quickly overthrown and revolutionaries established a new government with Sanford B. Dole as president.
Hawaii • The U.S. would annex Hawaii on July 7, 1898. • Hawaii became a U.S. territory in 1900 and the 50th state in 1959. • In 1993, Congress apologized for the U.S. role in Liliukalani’s overthrow.
China • Hawaii was important for the U.S. because it was used as a stopping point for China. • In 1843, China officially opened five ports to trade with the United States and Europe. • For the next 50 years China struggled to keep foreign interests from overrunning the country.
China • In 1895, China faced another threat, the Japanese. • Japan attacked and seized China’s Liaotung Peninsula and the large island of Taiwan. • Japan would gain influence over Korea as well.
Spheres of Influence • European countries quickly took advantage of China’s weakened condition. • Britain, France, Germany and Russia carved out spheres of influence. • Regions where a particular country has exclusive rights over mines, railroads, and trade.
The Open Door Policy • The U.S. was in danger of being forced out of the China trade. • In 1899, Secretary of State John Hay called for an open door policy. • Would give all nations equal access to trade and investment in China.
The Open Door Policy • Hay sent a series of Open Door notes to the European powers and Japan: • They keep all ports in their spheres open to all nations. • Asked that Chinese officials be allowed to collect all tariffs and duties. • Requested they guarantee equal harbor, railroad, and tariff rates to all spheres trading in China.
The Boxer Rebellion • Chinese resistance to foreigners continued to grow. • A secret society that became known as “boxers” by westerners circulated information. • In 1900, the boxers attacked western missionaries and traders in northern China. • Known as the Boxer rebellion, many of the boxers were supported by government officials.
The Boxer Rebellion • Foreign countries responded by sending troops to China. • After an 8 week siege, the international force rescued those westerners who were trapped and attacked. • China was forced to pay European powers $333 million for damages.
An Emerging Japan • Japan’s 1894 invasion of China marked its emergence as an imperial power. • Only 41 years earlier, Japan opened its doors to America and Commodore Mathew Perry. • Japan was persuaded to open its doors to trade.
An Emerging Japan • In 1854, Perry’s fleet of seven warships sailed into Edo, present day Tokyo. • Japanese leaders would eventually agree to western demands for trade. • Japan would rapidly transform itself into an industrial power and built up its army and navy.
An Emerging Japan • Japan and Russia had long been rivals for control in China. • In 1904, Japanese soldiers attacked Russian soldiers in Manchuria, starting the Russo-Japanese war. • A treaty would be negotiated and all sides, including the United States, got what they wanted.
An Emerging Japan • Japan had become a modern world power and a rival to the U.S. in the Pacific.
Section 2: War with Spain • Supporters of expansion had long been interested in Cuba, 90 miles from the Florida keys. • Cuba was one of two Spanish colonies still left in the Caribbean. • They would launch a series of revolts unsuccessfully.
Cuba • In 1896, General Valeriano Weyler was sent to put down a revolt. • He forced thousands of farmers into concentration camps to stop them from aiding the rebels. • Some 200,000 Cubans died from starvation and disease.
Cuba • William Randolph Hurst would push for U.S. intervention in his newspapers. • President McKinley, a civil war veteran, refused to go to war or intervene. • A Cuban spy had written that McKinley was weak and “a bidder for the admiration of the crowd.”
Cuba • Hurst would publish this, which would outrage the American people. • The USS Maine would be sent to Havana to protect U.S. lives and property. • On February 15th, 1898, the Maine blew up, killing 260 sailors.
Cuba • Many Americans would blame Spain, however there was no evidence of an attack. • More than likely a fire and explosion in a coal bin caused the problem. • On April 11th, McKinley asked congress to intervene in Cuba.