Essential Question/ Warm-up • Give two – three examples of empires or countries that have become very powerful and then collapsed. Why do you think this happened?
AKS 33: Analyze the importance of the Byzantine and Mongol empires between 450 CE and 1500
What was the Byzantine Empire? (PAGE 301) It was the Eastern part of the Roman Empire, with Byzantium, or Constantinople, as its capital
From which half of the Roman Empire was the Byzantine Empire created? Eastern What was the capital of the Byzantine Empire? How did the city get its name? Constantinople (formerly Byzantium); it was named after the emperor Constantine, who made it the capital in A.D. 330 For how long after the collapse of the “Western Roman Empire” did the Byzantine Empire last? Nearly 1,000 years
. Who was Justinian? A high-ranking Byzantine nobleman who succeeded his uncle to the throne in 527 A.D
What was the Justinian Code? List the four ‘works’ that made up the code and what each was. • A single, uniform code of Roman civil law collected and organized by order of Justinian. • The Code: 5,000 Roman laws still considered useful from the old Western Roman Empire • The Digest: Summary of opinions of Rome’s greatest legal thinkers – 50 volumes • The Institutes: Textbook that told law students how to use the code • The Novellae: New laws passed after 534A.D.
List the different areas of Byzantine life that the Justinian Code regulated.) • Marriage, slavery, property, inheritance, women’s rights, and criminal justice • For how long did the Justinian Code serve the Byzantine Empire? • 900 years
Who was Theodora? What was her political role within the Byzantine Empire? Justinian’s wife; She met with foreign envoys, wrote to foreign leaders, passed laws, and built churches.
Closing Question and Assignment • Do you think Justinian was a good ruler? Why or Why not? Use your notes to support your answer. • Assignment: Workbook pg. 38
Essential Question • Do you think Justinian was a good ruler? Why or Why not? Use your notes to support your answer. • Should religion shape/ dictate how society is run? Does religion shape/ dictate society today?
Why was church-building such an important part of Byzantine architecture? It was a visible sign of the close connection between church and state and it was also a good way to impress foreign powers.
Why had Christianity begun developing differently in the Western and Eastern Roman Empires? Mainly due to the distance and lack of contact between the two regions What’s the term used to describe the leading bishop of the Church in the Byzantine Empire? Patriarch
What is the Hagia Sophia? Why is it considered such an important part of Byzantine religion? A church rebuilt by Emperor Justinian; it could impress or intimidate those he governed, it showed the connection between church and state
Describe Constantinople’s “Mese.” List three continents from which products were sold at the Mese. • It meant “Middle Way” and was the main street running through Constantinople; • products from Asia, Africa, and Europe were sold there.
How were Slavic people introduced to Eastern Orthodox Christianity? Missionaries from the Orthodox Church brought it
Explain the impact that active trade between Byzantines and Slavs had on the development of Russian culture. • As the Byzantines traded with the Slavs, the Slavs began absorbing many Greek Byzantine ways. • It was this blending of Slavic and Greek cultures that eventually produced the Russian culture.
Which present-day Russian city did Viking Chief Rurik found in 862 A. D.? Novgorod • Why was Kiev’s geographic location important to trade between Russians and Byzantines? • It was located on the Dnieper River, which ran south to the Black Sea, where access to Constantinople allowed them to trade for goods from distant lands.
Why did the line between Viking and Slavic cultures eventually vanish? • As Kiev grew into a principality, Viking nobles intermarried with their Slavic subjects and adopted many aspects of Slavic culture. • Which Kievan princess visited Constantinople in 957 and converted to Orthodox Christianity, beginning the process by which Kiev would become Orthodox? (PAGE 307) • Princess Olga • In what year did Kiev officially adopt Eastern Orthodox Christianity? Who was the ruler of Kiev during the conversion? • 989; Vladimir
The birth of the Czars • Which Russian ruler was the first to use the title ‘czar’ while ruling? • Ivan III • What does the term ‘czar’ mean? What connection does it have with the Roman Empire? • Russian version of “Caesar”; Caesar was the name given to the emperors of Rome.
Close • Do you think religion can cause more harm than good or vice versa? • Assignment: Pages 308-310 #’s 1 & 2 on each page. 6 questions total, please answer them in complete sentences.
Essential Question • How can a difference in opinion cause/create/start a conflict? • What are some major topics in society that people disagree on?
Define the role of Orthodox Christianity and the Schism • What are icons? Why was there a controversy over their use within the early Christian Church? • Religious images used by Eastern Christians to aid their devotions; • Emperor Leo III of the Byzantine Empire banned the use of icons because he viewed it as idol worship.