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China and Japan. Part I, Birth of China thru the Northern Wei. Gov/Hist 352 Campbell University. Japan. Land Area: 145,000 Sq. Miles/= California +/- Population: 128 Million. 99% Japanese. 1% Korean. Low Birthrate: 1.01 in Tokyo. Low Marriage rate-”Parasite Singles.” Arable Land: 11.64%

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china and japan

China and Japan

Part I, Birth of China thru the Northern Wei

Gov/Hist 352

Campbell University

  • Land Area: 145,000 Sq. Miles/= California +/-
  • Population: 128 Million. 99% Japanese. 1% Korean. Low Birthrate: 1.01 in Tokyo. Low Marriage rate-”Parasite Singles.”
  • Arable Land: 11.64%
  • Natural Resources: Fish
  • Per Capita Income/GDP: $28,200/$3.582 Trillion
  • Life Expectancy: Male-78/Female-84.
  • Religion: Shinto, Buddhist, and animists.
japanese government
Japanese Government
  • Form: Constitutional Monarchy
  • Politics: Dominated by the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP).
  • Policy Objectives: To secure resources. The major investor in the Pacific Rim. ODA in 1999 was $11 Billion plus private funds.
  • Military: Second largest military budget in world at 1% of GDP (44.3 Billion). Why?

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe

china prc
Land Area: 3,723,000/Slightly< U.S. 4th largest country.

Population: 1.3 Billion. One Child Policy-Impact? 92% Han Chinese. Minorities occupy 60% of land.

Arable Land: 14.86%

Natural Resources: Coal, Oil, Iron, Tin, Uranium, Lead, etc.

Per Capita Income/GDP: $2,500/$2.97 Trillion with growth of 9.5%/year.

Life Expectancy: Male-69/Female-71.

Religion: Officially Atheist; but Taoism, Buddhism, Islam, Christian, Ancestor Worship.

China (PRC)
chinese government
Chinese Government
  • Form: Communist State (Peoples Republic of China).
  • Politics: Chinese Communist Party (CCP).
  • Policy Objectives:
    • Internal unity, economic development, trade, & secure borders.
    • Role of Overseas Chinese
  • Military: 4.3% of GDP (About 35 Billion)

President Hu Jintao

china s military
China’s Military
  • China sees its national interest as requiring secure borders, access to resources (oil) and secure sea routes for trade.
  • The status of Taiwan is a continuing issue.
  • China is developing a “blue water” navy and modernizing its air forces. It also has demonstrated an anti-satellite missile capability.

China’s newest fighter, the Jian-10

three gorges dam
Three Gorges Dam
  • Located on Yangtze River, 1,500 km west of Shanghai
  • World’s largest dam. 1.4 miles long and 600 ft high.
  • Will generate 18.2 GW from twenty-six 700-MW generators.
  • Work began in 1993.The dam wall was completed in 2006; total completion by 2009.

Ships will be able to sail to Chongqing

taiwan roc
Taiwan (ROC)
  • The other China: Taiwan (Republic of China). Population: 21.7 Million
  • Chiang Kai-shek and Guomindang fled to Taiwan in 1949. They ruled Taiwan by marshal law until 1987.
  • The U.S. recognized and supported the ROC vs. the PRC as the government of China until 1972.
  • The Dutch and Japanese had ruled Taiwan earlier.
the birth of china
The Birth Of China
  • Peking man- 50,000 years old remains.
  • Yangshao Culture: As early as 6000 BCE. Painted pottery.
  • Longshan/Dawenkou Culture: As early as 5000 BCE. Black Pottery.

Painted pottery


Paper thin black pottery.

the yellow emperor
The Yellow Emperor
  • The Yellow Emperor (2698-2598 BC) is a legendary figure from whom the Han Chinese claim descent. The term “yellow” refers to the Yellow River valley as their land of origin.
  • He succeeded Pan Gu, the offspring of Yin & Yang and the creator of the universe.
  • He is credited with founding the Chinese empire and may be linked to the Xia Dynasty.
three early dynasties
Three Early Dynasties
  • Xia (Hsia) 2100-1600BC
  • Shang (Yin) 1600-1027 BC
  • Zhou (Chou) 1027-221 BC
    • Western Zhou, Xi’an or Chang’an, 1027-771BC
    • Eastern Zhou, Louyang, 770-221BC
      • Spring and Autumn Annals 770-476 BC
      • Warring States 475-221 BC.
cultural core area
Cultural Core Area
  • The formative influence was disproportionate due to idealization of past.
  • Nomadic people settled in protected valleys of Wei and Yellow Rivers.
    • Fortuitous quality of loess soil for compacting and plowing. Walls, floors and foundations.
    • Farmed millet; raised pigs, dogs, sheep, chickens, deer, ox, etc.
    • Bronze (Cooper-Tin alloy) age tools and artifacts.
remains of civilization
Remains of Civilization
  • Excavation of tombs of kings and nobility such as at Anyang yielded:
    • Treasures of bronze.
    • Pottery, marble and jade.
    • Chariots, horses and armaments.
    • Remains of human sacrifices.
    • Dragon/oracle bones.
  • Post & beam construction.
  • Remains of city wall 60ft wide at base, 30 ft hi and 4 miles long.

Anyang was the last capital of the Shang Dynasty. The Shang had 7 capitals and 30 kings.

dragon oracle bones
Dragon/Oracle Bones

Tortes shell and scapula were used by shamans for divination. Thousands have been recovered.

early writing
Early Writing
  • During the Shang Dynasty written symbols were largely pictographic. They later became ideographic and phonetic.
the power of the written word
The Power of the Written Word
  • The written word was part of the shaman's magic. The aura of magic continued to surround the written word through much of China’s history. Example: Memorial to the Crocodiles.
  • Dragon/Oracle Bones:
    • Deal with war, planting, weather, hunts, journeys, etc.
    • Written to the Shang god: Shang Ti (original ancestor who exercised power over the weather, sun, moon and stars)and Tien (heaven).

(Above) Shang bronze chest. (Right) Figure

from Sanxindui in Southwest China.

alter pieces
Alter Pieces
  • Bronzes were principally used for ceremonial and commemorative purposes. They were frequently used as alter pieces in the worship of ancestors.
  • The Taotie dragon pattern is a recurrent decorative theme. The dragon guards the gates of heaven.
shang government
Shang Government
  • The Shang were ruled by kings whose subjects were much like extended families or clans.
  • Succession was from older to younger brother.
  • Filial piety (family loyalty) held the kingdom together.
  • The king’s role included religious rituals to ensure the fertility of the soil, rain, good crops, etc.
  • The Shang nobility conducted huge hunts in chariots which were essentially war maneuvers.
  • The score keeper of archery matches may have been the precursor of the mandarin.
zhou dynasty 1027 221 bce
Zhou Dynasty (1027-221 BCE)
  • Zhou was originally a vassal state of the Shang.
  • The Zhou originated the idea of the “mandate of heaven” to legitimize its conquest of the Shang.
  • The Zhou king’s took the title of “Son of Heaven”and ruled thru a “feudal-like” structure.
  • The Zhou left a remnant to continue sacrifices to the Shang ancestors.

The Zhou ruled as many as 140 petite states

the duke of zhou
The Duke of Zhou
  • King Wu (Wu Wang) died 3 years after he conquered the Shang, leaving a 13 year old heir, King Cheng.
  • King Wu’s younger brother, the Duke of Zhou, declared himself regent and ruled in King Cheng’s place.
  • The eastern states gravitated to the Shang remnant and revolted. The Duke fought a lengthy war to defeat the rebels and consolidate the kingdom.
  • When King Cheng turned 17, the Duke returned the united kingdom to him and retired.
declining power
Declining Power
  • Just as the Zhou challenged the more civilized Shang, so other western barbarian groups and emerging states challenged and weakened Zhou. Likewise, the pleasures of the harem corrupt and dynastic decline takes its toll.
  • The Western Zhou finally fell when King You sought to replace his Queen with his favorite concubine, Baosi. The queen’s father, Marquess of Shen (a barbarian people) joined forces with Zheng, Lu and Qin to sack the capital and place the Queen’s son, Ji Yijui on the throne. The capital was move to Luoyang in 770 BCE..
eastern zhou 770 221 bce
Eastern Zhou (770-221 BCE)
  • The move to the eastern capital and questions about the legitimacy of the heir accelerated the decline of the Zhou.
  • Multiple states vied for power and position. The strongest was granted the title of Ba(Pa) to rule over a confederacy of states on behalf of the King.
  • In theory, only the king was absolute monarch, “son of Heaven,” empowered to perform rituals to maintain the harmony of heaven and earth, to invest feudal lords with estates and recognize new states. In fact, he became a figure head.
spring and autumn annals
Spring and Autumn Annals
  • A history of the state of Lu and one of the 5 classics, the title of which designates the period 770-476 BCE.
  • Tradition holds that Confucius edited the annals.
  • Prominent states of the period included Qi (Shandong), Jin (Shanxi), Chu (Yangzi River) and Qin (Shaanxi).
warring states 476 221 bce
Warring States (476-221 BCE)
  • The absorption of smaller states accelerated. The struggle narrowed to seven: Qi, Chu, Yan, Han, Zhao, Wei & Qin.
  • The size of armies increased from 30,000 to 100,000, largely composed of infantry and cavalry equipped with iron weapons. The dagger-axe pike and cross-bow were among the favored weapons.
  • Warlords took the title of king instead of duke, asserting equality with the King of Zhou.
  • Walls were built for protection.
  • The Hundred Schools of Philosophy emerged.
the hundred schools of philosophy
The Hundred Schools of Philosophy
  • The period of the Eastern Zhou was the time of the “Hundred Schools.” The term suggests an explosion of ideas. A struggle emerged between competing philosophies to achieve dominance.
  • A class of nobility arose in addition to the warriors who were literate, the Junzi (Chun Tzu) or Gentry, thus Gentlemen. With the Warring States period, further social mobility led to the status of the nobility being threatened.
  • Four major schools of thought dominated the period: Confucianism (Ru=classical tradition), Mohism, Daoism and Legalism. Legalism was the winner; it could demonstrate measurable results. It was later modified into Imperial Confucianism during the Han Dynasty.
  • Lived from 551 to 475 BCE.. Born in Lu (Shandong) of noble family. Famous as a teacher and mentor.
  • Some portray him as unsuccessfully office seeker, whose goal was to be an advisor to kings.
  • The Analects are a collection of his teachings recorded by his students. Some claim that he edited the Odes and wrote the Spring & Autumn Annals.

Kongfuzi/Kung Fu Tzu

(Master Kong)

confucian teachings
Confucian Teachings
  • He believed man was instinctively good, but required training and refinement. He placed great weight on Li (ritual) to achieve refinement.
  • He believed music was particularly useful as a civilizing agent. Learning to play and appreciate music taught discipline and sensitivity.
  • His ideal man was the “junzi,” the true gentleman. The Duke of Zhou was his model, fully versed in the humanities with a sense of propriety and “fellow feeling”/ humanness or Ren.
  • The junzi was a nobility of training and virtue. Noble birth was assumed. Why?
confucian teachings cont d
Confucian Teachings (Cont’d)
  • He saw proper hierarchical relationships as the key to an orderly society. There are five: father and son, ruler and minister, husband and wife, older and younger brother, friend and friend.
  • He expressed the importance of moral and ethical values through the concept of “rectification of names.”
  • He did not seek to challenge the absolute power of monarchy, only guide it. A truly virtuous king would rule thru the power of his example.
  • His reverence for the past reinforced ancient religious practices, such as ancestor worship.
  • Mo Di/Mozi (Master Mo) (470-391BCE) was of humble birth from either Song or Lu.
  • Like Confucius, he attracted a large following of students who recorded his teachings. He pioneered an argumentative essay style.
  • His writings are of a master engineer & craftsman who became an expert in defensive warfare. Understood Newton’s first law of motion.
  • He was a pacifist in the sense that he condemned all offensive warfare and offered his assistance to those attacked.
moism cont d
Moism (Cont’d)
  • He advocated universal love or altruism without partiality for family and friends as the way of correcting the failings of society and government.
  • He emphasized utilitarianism instead of tradition as a measurement for good and evil of actions.
  • He believed self-reflection instead of ritual was the best means of cultivating benevolence.
  • His ideas lost influence during the Han Dynasty, but became popular under the Republican and Communist regimes.
  • Mencius was born in Zhou and is considered to be the Second Sage (or St. Paul) of Confucianism.
  • He believed man was innately good. Society or environment was responsible for bad moral character. As evidence he cited the Four Sprouts or Beginnings:
    • a. Alarm and distress.
    • b. Commiseration.
    • c. Deference and compliance.
    • d. Realization of right and wrong.

Meng Tzu/Mengke/ko

(372-289 BCE

mencius cont d
Mencius (Cont’d)
  • His view of the Mandate of Heaven was essentially that of a social contract. The right of revolt was implicit.
  • The king should rule thru the power of his goodness which would transform society.
  • The duty of government/society was to nurture goodness, thereby transforming the individual.
  • His model sage was Shun, a man of lowly birth who attained such virtue and wisdom that King Yao abdicated in his favor.
daoism taoism
  • Dao/Tao means “the way” or path of the universe.
  • Both philosophical and religious forms exist based on the Laozi and Zhuangzi. The religious form was associated with alchemy, magic, fortune telling, secret societies, etc..
  • The Daoism is attributed to Laozi (Master Lao), a putative figure who claimed to live before Confucius. His writings suggest the opposite.

Yin-Yang symbol

daoism cont d
Daoism (Cont’d)
  • Daoism asserts people are good in their natural state. They should be left alone to live in harmony with nature.(Akin to noble savages.)
  • Daoism is iconoclastic. It challenges conventional morality and the values of Confucianism, Moism and (later)Buddhism.
  • As related to government, Daoism advocates mitigated anarchism. Government acts by non-acting, doing as little as possible and not disturbing the people’s Wa.

Confucius, Buddha & Laozi

tasting the vinegar.

daoism cont d36
Daoism (Cont’d)
  • The ideal Daoist society would be one in which the people live in primal simplicity and ignorance.
  • The ideal Daoist human is one who functions intuitively and is not bothered by artificial concepts of good & evil.
  • Daoist anecdotes convey a sense of perspective, such as Zhuangzi and the Butterfly.

Hell Bank Notes are being replaced by Hell Bank Visa Cards.

i ching jing or book of changes
I Ching/Jing or Book of Changes
  • The I Ching is a book of numerology which is primarily associated with Daoism.
  • The book is based on the interpretation of 64 hexagrams, each composed of two trigrams. The trigrams are combinations of three solid and/or broken lines.
  • Solid lines are considered to be yang, broken are yin.
the five elements agents
The Five Elements/Agents
  • In ancient Chinese philosophy, the five elements were used to describe the interactions and relationships between phenomena, such as seasons, colors, notes, smells, directions, etc.
  • The elements also correspond to yin-yang. Earth, water and wood are considered yin; fire and metal are yang.

The Five Elements have been used in music, medicine, military science, acupuncture, psychology, geomancy, etc.

xunzi hsun tzu
Xunzi/Hsun Tzu
  • Xunzi (Xun Kuang) is one of the three great Confucian philosophers. He lived during the Warring States period, studied and taught in the Jixia academy in Qi and later held office in the Chu.
  • His most famous students were Han Feizi and Li Si, who opposed Chu and were instrumental in the unification of China under the Qin Dynasty.

Xunzi was born in Zhao in 312

BCE. Lived until 220BCE.

xunzi cont d
Xunzi (Cont’d)
  • Xunzi advocates the Way (Dao) of the sages, of good government and proper behavior. The Way is taught thru ritual.
  • He does not believe in Heaven’s intervention; nevertheless, recommends ritual prayer and sacrifices. Why?
  • He believes that man instinctively makes bad choices and is morally blind, i.e., he is bad. His instincts lead to conflict.
  • The role of education is to transform man by changing his basic instincts.
  • Founded by Han Feizi (280-233 BCE) and Li Si in the late Warring States period. Han Fei was the theoretician; Li Si was the politician.
  • Han Fei was a prince of Han. He wrote a book (55 chapters) to compensate for stuttering. Was employed by Qin as an ambassador. In 234 BCE, he was charged with treason by Li Si.
  • Li Si (280 – 208 BCE) was from Chu. He was Chancellor of Qin from 246-208 BCE and responsible for its policies after unifying China.

School of Law

legalism cont d
Legalism (Cont’d)
  • Three principles are central to Legalism.
    • Law: Laws must be written, publicized and equally applied to all, regardless of rank or circumstances, as immutably as the laws of nature.
    • Legitimacy: Power is vested in the position, not the man. The structure of the state should be strong enough to allow even an average person to rule successfully.
    • Morality: Morality and human nature are irrelevant. Rewards and punishments are all that matter.
  • The old feudal relationships were dead.
  • The goal was to build a strong state and military.
shang yang
Shang Yang
  • Qin began its rise to power when Shang Yang (Gongsun Yang/Lord Shang) became chief advisor to the Duke of Xiao (361-338 BCE). He was born in Zhou and possibly served as a royal tutor in Wei.
  • He brought Li Kui’s Book of Law (407 BCE) from Wei and implemented it in 356 BCE.
  • King Huiwen put him and his family to death in 338 BCE as revenge for having been punished earlier without regard for his rank..

Shang Yang

shang yang s policies
Shang Yang’s Policies
  • Implemented the Book of Law with the addition of providing punishments equal to that of the perpetrator for those failing to report crimes.
  • Stripped the nobility of land rights and titles. Replaced the nobility with a military rank structure. Assigned ranks and land to soldiers based upon military success.
  • Encouraged agriculture over commerce and the cultivation of unsettled lands and wastelands. Encouraged immigration.
  • Burnt Confucian books. Why?
  • Standardized land allocation and taxes.
shang yang s policies cont d
Shang Yang’s Policies (Cont’d)

6.Established a central bureaucracy and divided the state into administrative districts instead of feudal domains.

7. Taxed peasants directly.

8. Conscripted all males between 15 and 56.

9. Eliminated primogeniture as a means of deconstructing the extended family clan system.

10. Implemented a Horizontal Alliance strategy of foreign relations. Befriend distant states; conquer neighboring states.

11. Considered all culture and traditional virtues a waste.

the qin dynasty
The Qin Dynasty
  • The Qin unified China in 221 BCE, but only lasted until 207. The regime was as revolutionary as Mao’s
    • China was divided into 36 commanderies which were subdivided into counties, all under central control.
    • The feudal nobility was replaced and officials assigned on the basis of performance, not birth.
    • The title of Emperor was taken by the ruler instead of king (wang), the first supreme ultimate.

Shi Huangdi

qin dynasty cont d
Qin Dynasty (Cont’d)
  • Uniform laws were enforced without regard to position or title.
  • Weights and measures were standardized for the whole country.
  • Axle widths were standardized.
  • Standardized and simplified the written language.
  • The population was disarmed, including the Junzi.
qin dynasty cont d48
Qin Dynasty (Cont’d)
  • 120,000 aristocratic families were transported to Shaanxi.
  • Built the Great Wall, 1,400 miles long as a defense against the Xiongnu.
  • Built roads and canals.
  • Burned the books of all other philosophies.
  • Executed 460 scholars for concealing books.
  • Exhausted the country thru taxes and labor demands.
qin shi huangdi
Qin Shi Huangdi
  • Qin Shi Huangdi died while on an inspection tour. Li Si and Zhao Gao ( a eunuch) conspired to keep his death a secret until they could forge a will directing the heir, Er Shi Huangdi, to commit suicide. Why? He did, leaving the third son.
  • In 1974, a peasant accidentally unearthed the tomb of Qin Shi Huangdi about 20 miles east of Xian. There are 8,099 terracotta figures plus a complete world with stars and rivers.

Terracotta soldiers:Qin tomb

han dynasty 206 bce 220ce
Han Dynasty (206 BCE –220CE)
  • The death of Qin Shi Huangdi led to a civil war in which many previously existing states reemerged.
  • The final struggle is called the Chu-Han Contention. It pitted Xiang Yu of Chu nobility against Liu Bang, a peasant who became prince of Han.
  • Xiang Yu sought to restore the old aristocracy. Xiang Yu won the battles; Liu Bang’s politician skills won the war.

Han Gaozu/Liu Bang (247-195 BCE)

the han dynasty
The Han Dynasty
  • The Han Dynasty is divided into
    • The Former/Western Han (206 BCE- 9 CE) at Chang’an.
    • The Wang Mang’s Xin (9-23 CE)
    • The Later/Eastern Han (25-220 CE) at Luoyang.

Chinese records describe several Roman embassies that traveled to China and one in particular that met Emperor Huan in 166 BCE.

western han 206 bce 9 ce
Western Han (206 BCE – 9 CE)
  • The Western Han established Chang’an (aka Xi’an) as its capital. It was a huge urban center laid out on a N-S axis.
  • It was one of the two largest cities in the ancient world. Rome was the other.
  • Chang’an also served as the capital of the Sui & Tang Dynasties and was the model for Kyoto.
western han
Western Han
  • Han Gaozu awarded kingdoms to his supporters; however, the basic centralized structure of the empire was retained.
  • Encouraged a venire of Confucianism, but legalism remained at the core of government.
  • Sought to restore prosperity and encourage agriculture. War had ravaged the land and inflation was rampant. A horse cost 300 lbs of gold. A bushel of rice cost a pound of gold.
  • Forced to deal with an emerging merchant class, in spite of Confucian scruples.
western han under wudi
Western Han Under Wudi
  • The dynasty reached its height under seventh emperor, Wudi. His reign last 54 years (141-86BCE).
    • Confucianism became the official state philosophy. Held first examinations, although appointment to office based on position and recommendation continued.
    • The first official history was written by Sima Qian, the Shiji. It became the model for subsequent histories. It described the surrounding peoples as barbarians and promoted the idea of the “dynastic cycle.”
    • He expanded the empire to include N. Vietnam, Korea and Central Asia along the Silk Road.
confucian bureaucracy
Confucian Bureaucracy
  • Bureaucracy became the hallmark of Chinese government. It took shape during the Western Han.
    • Initially, appointments were based on recommendations by officials of “filial and honest” young men of good family.
    • Established an examination system which was in theory open to all; hence, permitted some social mobility.
    • Established an Empirical University which produced 30,000 graduates by the end of the Eastern Han.
  • The system produced a well trained, dedicated civil service, loyal to the central government.
wu vs wen
Wu vs. Wen
  • The Confucian literati and the Emperor formed a symbiotic relationship in governing the country. The emperor provided “wu:”the structure of power, e.g., army, police, etc. The scholars provided “wen:” the knowledge of precedent and statecraft that legitimized power and made the system work.
  • The scholars were not “yes” men. They believed that they had a mission to “guide” the emperor no matter the consequences. Ex. Sima Quian’s defense of a Chinese general and Wudi’s reaction.
western han the silk road
Western Han & the Silk Road
  • Constant warfare against the Xiongnu led to efforts to control border areas and beyond, e.g., the Silk Road.
  • In 138 BCE, Wudi sent Zhang Quian to contact the Yuezhi, whom the Xiongnu had displaced. The goal was to back-door the Xiongnu.
  • After 10 years imprisonment by the Xiongnu, Zhang Quian contacted the Yuehzi in modern Uzbekistan and negotiated an alliance. He returned to China 12years after his departure.
han economic policy
Han Economic Policy
  • Taxes: Emperor Wu’s expansion of the empire required new sources of revenue.
    • Established salt and iron monopolies.
    • Tax assets at 10%. The tax encouraged inflation.
    • Sold offices, titles and dispensations from punishment.
  • Currency: To combat speculation and hording established:
    • A government mint to produce silver coinage after rampant inflation and “white stag” currency..
    • The “Ever-Normal” granary system to stabilize prices by buying surpluses and selling during shortages.
wang mang the xin
Wang Mang & the Xin
  • Wang Mang rose to power as the nephew of Grand Empress Dowager Wang. He was appointed regent to a succession of three child emperor’s, finally taking the title of “acting emperor.” In 9 AD, he claimed the full title.
  • Wang Mang cultivated the reputation of being a competent but filial official. In fact, he murdered the last child emperor and purged the royal court.

Wang Mang, the usurper

wang mang s policies
Wang Mang’s Policies
  • Restored a version of the ancient Zhou well-field system.
    • All land became the property of the state. Could not be sold or bought.
    • Required redistribution of land in excess of one “well” (0.6 sq km).
  • Abolished slave trade, but not slavery, per se.
  • Created an economic adjustment agency (price stabilization).
  • Created new coinage, an income tax and added new state monopolies on liquor and weapons.
xin failures 9 23 ce
Xin Failures (9-23 CE)
  • Wang Mang’s attempt at land reform while needed only led to gentry resistance.
  • The yield from additional taxes and monopolies were largely offset by corruption and graft.
  • Changes in coinage led to anger and inflation.
  • The Yellow River shifted its course from North to South 3 times, flooding the Shantung Peninsula.
  • The Xiongnu and other tribal groups revolted.
  • Secret Societies like Mother Lu’s Red Eyebrows inspired peasant insurrection.
fall of the xin
Fall of the Xin
  • The Xin became embroiled in constant and costly warfare with tribal groups on its borders.
  • Over a period of time insurgent groups coalesced around Liu family pretenders. Eventually, Liu Xiu was declared Prince of Han.
  • Chang’an and the palace were attacked in 23 CE. Wang Mang & 1,000 members of his court died in the battle. His head was kept as a souvenir.
  • The restored Han Dynasty established its capital in Louyang in 25 CE.
the eastern han 25 220 ce
The Eastern Han (25-220 CE)
  • Protracted civil war resulted in automatic land and tax reform.
  • Ban Chao defeated the Yuezhi and reasserted control over Central Asia, leading military forces to the Caspian Sea.
  • Dou Xian weakened the Xiongnu in Mongolia allowing growth of Xianbei power.
  • Trade and diplomacy flourished. Western & Central Asia , Japan and Rome all sent envoys & tribute.

Ban Chao dominated Central Asia, 73-94 CE.

han accomplishments
Han Accomplishments
  • The Han Chinese developed paper, water clocks, sundials, astronomical instruments and invented the seismograph.
  • Wrote texts on chemistry, zoology and botany; measured the movements of the stars and planets
  • Diagnosed diseases, used herbal remedies & drugs; developed acupuncture.
  • Invented the ship rudder and suspension bridge.

The Chinese invented the seismograph in 132 CE.

fall of the eastern han
Fall of the Eastern Han
  • Four factors led to the fall of the Eastern Han.
    • Great landed families dominated selection process for bureaucratic offices and provided imperial consorts. They blocked needed land and tax reforms.
    • Protracted border wars caused an acute fiscal strain.
    • In 166 CE, eunuch power reached the point of allowing them to seize control of the government. Called the Proscription, eunuch control lasted 18 years before the Massacre of the Eunuchs by Dong Zhou.
    • Rebellions by secret societies like the Celestial Masters and Yellow Turbans led to their control of entire provinces.
cao cao and the warlords
Cao Cao and the Warlords
  • After the Han capital was burned in 190 CE by Dong Zhou, Cao Cao offered Emperor Xiandi refuge in his capital at Xuchang.
  • The emperor soon became Cao Cao’s puppet.
  • When Cao Cao died, his son Cao Pi, accepted the emperor’s abdication in 220 CE and established the Wei Dynasty.

Wei was carved out by Cao Cao. He was sent to subdue the nomadic tribes of the area. He fought the Yellow Turbans and defeated the Celestial Masters.

three kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
  • The period that followed the collapse of the Eastern Han is called the Three Kingdoms.
  • (Cao) Wei occupied the north, Shu (Han) occupied the west and Wu occupied the south. The Shu and Wu were founded by members of the Liu royal family.
  • Cao Cao sought to reunite China but was defeated by a coalition of Shu and Wu.

The Romance Of Three Kingdoms, a classic of Chinese literature, celebrates the period.

overview 400 years of disunity
Overview: 400 Years of Disunity
  • Following the Three Kingdoms, China was briefly reunited by the Jin (265-316).
  • The Jin was followed by the Sixteen Kingdoms in the north (304-439) and the Six Dynasties (220-589) in the south, all with capitals at Nanjing.
  • The Tuoba clan of the Xianbei supplanted the Xiongnu and other Xianbei tribes to establish Northern or Tuoba Wei (386-534).
  • The Northern Wei united China north of the Yellow River, effectively ending the period of the Sixteen Kingdoms.
wei jin connection
Wei - Jin Connection
  • Cao Pi established the Wei Dynasty with the support of General Sima Yi. The Sima family deposed the emperor in 265 and established the Western Jin (265-316) with Louyang as its capital.
  • In 289, the Western Jin conquered the Wu (the last of the Three Kingdoms) and unified China.
  • Internal strife weakened the Western Jin and in 308, the Xiongnu chief, Liuyan captured Louyang and the emperor. A remnant fled to Chang’an but was defeated in 316 by Liuyan.
  • The remainder of the Western Jin fled to Jiankang (Nanking) and became the Eastern Jin (316-420)
northern wei
Northern Wei
  • The Touba established its capital at Datong (Shanxi),later moved to Louyang.
  • They adopted the Chinese language, titles, dress, ceremonies, music and legal codes and intermarried.
  • Used Chinese officials to collect taxes, keep records and run the government.
  • Created 30,000 Buddhist cave images.

Gilt Bronze Buddha, 55” hi.

northern wei cont d
Northern Wei (Cont’d)
  • The Tuoba admired and sought to imitate the Han.
  • They instituted the “equal field system” which was applied primarily to open land.
  • Adopted the nine-rank system for recruiting officials. It relied on inherited family rank.
  • Administratively organized the land using a system of fives. Five families formed a neighborhood (lin), five neighborhoods formed a village (li) and five villages formed a commune (tang).
religion and culture
Religion and Culture
  • The disunity following the Han created a cultural melting pot.
  • Buddhism which had just reached China during the Han became a major force.
  • Nomadic people from the Inner Asian frontier conquered the north and were in turn Sinified.
  • Sinification resulted in a fatal split within the Northern Wei between border garrisons and the more southern ruling class.

Longmen Caves, Louyang


Expansion of Buddhism to the East, 1st-10th Century CE.

recurring patterns
Recurring Patterns
  • Development of Centralized Bureaucracy.
  • Aristocratic Families Vs. Exam System Graduates.
  • Inner Vs. Outer Court.
  • Consort and Eunuch Power.
  • Impact of Inner Asian Frontier.
  • Regionalism and Warlordism.
  • Ever Shrinking Tax Base.
  • Buddhist – Daoist - Confucian Interaction.
the end of part i

The End of Part I

The Chinese invented the first wheelbarrow.