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Music ~ Broadway Musical ~. 2006.2.3 Shinji Sato. Today’s Procedure. First Part ・・・ About Broadway Musical Second Part ・・・ Video PBS: “Broadway - The American Musical” Last Part ・・・ Cost of Musical . First Part. Broadway.

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Music~Broadway Musical~


Shinji Sato

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Today’s Procedure

  • First Part ・・・About Broadway Musical

  • Second Part ・・・VideoPBS: “Broadway - The American Musical”

  • Last Part ・・・Cost of Musical

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  • Broadway is a wide avenue in New York City, and is the north-south main thoroughfare in the city.

  • The name Broadway is an English translation of the Dutch name, Breede weg.

  • The street is famous as the pinnacle of the American theatre industry.



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What is Musical?

  • Musical is a form of play combining music, songs, dance and spoken dialogue

  • The musical components of a traditional musical are generally referred to as the score, with sung lines considered the lyrics and the spoken lines the “book”

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Difference between Broadway, Off-Broadway and Off-Off-Broadway

  • Theatre names are defined as seat numbers

More than 300 seats

From 100 to 299 Seats

Under 99 Seats

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Procedure Style on Stage Off-Off-Broadway

1. Traditional Style with lines and songs⇒ Most of the Musical

2. Mainly with songs

(e.g. Les Misérables, Cats, The Phantom of the Opera, Sunset Blvd, etc)

3. Mainly with dance

(e.g. Movin’ Out, etc)

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Music Genre Off-Off-Broadway

1. European Classic

2. Pop/Rock

3. Jazz

4. Ethnic Music

5. Traditional

6. Mixture

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Story Genre Off-Off-Broadway

1. Literature/Saga

2. Conceptual

3. Back Stage

4. Romantic

5. Suspense

6. Youth

7. Fairy tale

8. Comedy

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Chart of Musical Genre Off-Off-Broadway

Classified by Shinji Sato, based of Takashi Ishihara

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Longest Broadway Runs Off-Off-Broadway

(performances as of 1/9/06)





The Phantom of the Opera






Les Misérables



A Chorus Line



Oh! Calcutta



Beauty and the Beast



Miss Saigon






Chicago (revival)



42nd Street


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Opening Schedule Off-Off-Broadway

Preparation for Premier(Ticket is cheaper than one after opening)

Performance for Critics and Celebs

Performed by the end of due


Premier/ Grand Open


※ Whether the musical is successful or not is mainly determine by the Critics’ Review at the Premier

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Tony Award Off-Off-Broadway

  • An annual award celebrating achievements in live American theatre, including musical theatre

  • Awarded by a panel of approximately 700 judges from various areas of the industry and press

  • Winning a Tony award in a major category (Best Play, Best Musical, Best Play Revival, Best Musical Revival, Best Actor, Best Actress) can dramatically increase a show‘s ticket sales

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Second Part Off-Off-Broadway

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Last Part Off-Off-Broadway

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Initial Cost Off-Off-Broadway

The Phantom of the Opera

La Cage aux Folles



My One and Only

The Lion King



Miss Saigon


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Cost of Musical Off-Off-Broadway

Number of Seats: 550, Ticket:$50, Weekly Performance:8





Initial Cost



Weekly Sales



Weekly Running Cost



Weekly Rental Cost for Theatre



Weekly Royalty



Weekly Profit


15 Weeks

Fund Payback


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How Producer raise money? Off-Off-Broadway

  • Use his (her) own money

  • Invested by Angel ( Individual Investor for show business)

  • Audition for Investors (BACKERS AUDITION )

    • Meeting to do presentation for new project

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Closing level of attendance for Long Runs Off-Off-Broadway

  • 60% attendance is the dead line

    • High cost musicals: 70% attendance

    • Low cost musicals: 50% attendance

  • Sometimes show closes immediately after Grand Open

    • 4 days is the worst record: Red Shoes

    • Recently musical: Lennon

See Web

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Initial Cost in New York and London Off-Off-Broadway

Rental Cost

Stage Setting Cost

Personnel Expenses

Threefold !!!


New York

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Tryout Off-Off-Broadway

  • Tentatively perform in middle-size cities, such as San Francisco, before performing in New York

    • Hedge the risk

    • Observe the audience reaction

    • PR before performing in New York

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Success Track to New York Off-Off-Broadway

Tryout or London Origin Musical come to New York to get the first rank honor of entertainment

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Expansion from New York Off-Off-Broadway

Popular musicals spread around the world

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Film → Off-Off-BroadwayMusical

  • The Lion King

  • Beauty and the Beast

  • 42nd Street

  • Sunset Blvd

  • Saturday Night Fiver

  • Big

  • Full Monty

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Musical → Off-Off-BroadwayFilm

  • Chicago

  • Rent

  • Evita

  • The King and I

  • My Fair Lady

  • Sound of Music

  • West Side Story

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Globalization and Media Off-Off-Broadway

  • Once popularized and awarded in New York, Musical has the chance to perform in other cities and countries.

  • To be success, taking advantage of media, such as advertisement and critic’s review, is a key.

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Reference Off-Off-Broadway

  • Books

    • 野口 久光 『ミュージカルを楽しむ法』 晶文社、1997年

    • 井上 一馬 『ブロードウェイ・ミュージカル』 文藝春秋、1999年

    • 石原 隆司 『知っているようで知らない ミュージカル雑学辞典』2003年

    • 重政 隆文 『ザッツ ブロードウェイ ミュージカル』 松本工房 1999年

    • 藤田 敏雄 『ミュージカルはお好き? 日本人とミュージカル』 日本放送出版協会 2005年

    • 萩尾 瞳 『ミュージカルに連れてって!』 青弓社 2000年

    • 石原 隆司 『ミュージカル完全ガイド』 音楽之友社2000年

    • オペラハンドブック編集部 『オペラ101物語』 新書館 1997年

    • 淺香 淳 『オペラ辞典』 音楽之友社 1993年

    • 堀内 修・石戸谷 結子 『オペラ・ハンドブック』 三省堂 1999年

    • 永竹 由幸 『痛快!オペラ学』 集英社インターナショナル 2001年

  • Video

    • NHK総合 『全6回放送「ブロードウェー」(ブロードウェー100年~華麗なるミュージカル)』 2006年1月2~6日

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Thank you very much Off-Off-Broadway

for your attention!!