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Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Film Music. Technology and Film-Music (Multi-modal) Research. Dr. Scott D. Lipscomb Institute for Music Research University of Texas at San Antonio. Organization of Presentation. Types of audio & visual stimuli used in film music research

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Technology and Film-Music (Multi-modal) Research


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    1. Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Film Music Technology and Film-Music(Multi-modal) Research Dr. Scott D. Lipscomb Institute for Music Research University of Texas at San Antonio SMPC Conference

    2. Organization of Presentation • Types of audio & visual stimuli used in film music research • Methods of A-V stimulus presentation • Future directions & possibilities SMPC Conference

    3. The Phonograph SMPC Conference

    4. Research Studies • Tannenbaum (1956); dramatic presentation (live, studio tape, or recording of live performance) w/phonograph “accompaniment” SMPC Conference

    5. Videocassette Recorder (VHS) SMPC Conference

    6. Research Studies • Thompson, Russo, & Sinclair (1994); investigation of perceived “closure” • Experiment 3 • Excerpts from Clue (1985) w/newly-composed MIDI scores • Bolivar, Cohen, & Fentress (1994); “congruency” between audio & visual • Experiment 1, 2, & 3 • Videos showing “friendly” or “aggressive” social interactions between wolves w/audio selected from commercially-used excerpts for broadcast • Marshall & Cohen (1988) SMPC Conference

    7. Research Studies • Lipscomb & Kendall (1994); reliability of composer intent & subject SD ratings • Excerpts from Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home with intended music & “other” music from same film • Bullerjahn & Güldenring (1994); qualitative content analysis • Excerpts from “The Joker” (film school project) with newly-composed music by three German composers SMPC Conference

    8. Research Studies • Krumhansl & Schenck (1997); can dance reflect structural & expressive qualities of music? • VHS presentation of filmed ballet performance (single camera) w/Mozart’s Divertimento No. 15 in Bb major (K. 287) • Iwamiya (1994); audio-visual interactions • Laserdisc excerpts transferred to VHS in “matched” and “mismatched” conditions • Boltz, et al (late 80s & 90s); filmed narrative & memory for events/time estimates SMPC Conference

    9. Laserdisc Player SMPC Conference

    10. Research Studies • Lipscomb (1995); synchronization of audio & visual • Laserdisc excerpts accompanied by digital audio files SMPC Conference

    11. DVD Player SMPC Conference

    12. Incredible Potential forFuture Investigations • Substantial increase in data capacity • DVD-R to create “compilation” of excerpts from a variety of resources SMPC Conference

    13. Microcomputer SMPC Conference

    14. Stimulus Presentation Now you see it … SMPC Conference

    15. Television Monitor SMPC Conference

    16. Large-Screen TV SMPC Conference

    17. Data Projector SMPC Conference

    18. Viewing DVD source asProjected Image SMPC Conference

    19. Computer Control Complete Randomization inStimulus Presentation SMPC Conference

    20. Interfaces Laserdisc Interface (serial) VHS Interface (RS-232) SMPC Conference

    21. Research Studies • Thompson, Russo, & Sinclair (1994); investigation of perceived “closure” • Experiment 1 • 3-D animation w/MIDI audio • Experiment 2 • Original film footage digitized into Quicktime format w/MIDI audio SMPC Conference

    22. Research Studies • Sirius & Clarke (1994); effect of music on perceived meaning of images • Original 3-D animations w/newly-composed MIDI audio in various “styles” • Romantic, sci-fi, comic, Spanish, chase, disco, thriller, western SMPC Conference

    23. Research Studies • Lipscomb (1995); synchronization of audio & visual • Laserdisc excerpts accompanied by digital audio files • Allowed complete randomization of stimuli • Datteri (1998); influence of audio on ambiguous visual stimulus • black & white vertical bars and sine signal, either single tone or scale SMPC Conference

    24. Music Experiment Development System (MEDS) Dr. Roger A. KendallUniversity of California, Los Angeles SMPC Conference

    25. MEDS’ Control Panel SMPC Conference

    26. MEDS’ Experiment Module SMPC Conference

    27. Stimulus PlayList SMPC Conference

    28. Stimulus Creation • Synthesize complex signals • MIDI data SMPC Conference

    29. Data Analysis A closer look at the stimuli SMPC Conference

    30. Fast Fourier Transform SMPC Conference

    31. FFT Displays SMPC Conference

    32. RMS Calculation SMPC Conference

    33. RMS Display SMPC Conference

    34. MEDS Data Editor SMPC Conference

    35. Statistical Analysis Exporting Data SMPC Conference

    36. SPSS, Systat, Sygraph, etc. SMPC Conference

    37. Descriptive Stats SMPC Conference

    38. Graphic Representation SMPC Conference

    39. Cluster Analysis SMPC Conference

    40. Multidimensional Scaling SMPC Conference

    41. Future Possibilities The Internet as a Research Tool SMPC Conference

    42. Difficulties in A-V Presentation • Full-screen, full-motion A-V presentation is processor-intensive • Especially w/16-bit, 44.1 KHz stereo audio • A-V synchronization can be problematic • Even with streaming technologies, internet presentation of A-V stimuli is unreliable over the internet • Quality varies radically at the receiving end • May be due to a number of unpredictable factors SMPC Conference

    43. Broadband Connections SMPC Conference

    44. Streaming Technologies • Apple Quicktime • Real Media • MPEG video • Macromedia Shockwave & Flash • Microsoft Media Technologies • Media 100 iFINISH • Avid ePublisher • others SMPC Conference

    45. Future Experiment? • Subject pool world-wide • Rather than freshmen taking General Psych • Stimuli viewed over broadband internet connection • full-screen, full-motion streaming video with (relatively) hi-fidelity sound • Subject responses are fed directly into a database at the researcher’s location • Data are analyzed & interpreted • Results published in a peer-reviewed ejournal • Complete data set is made available online SMPC Conference

    46. Potential Advantages • Greater generalizeability of results • Larger “N” • Less heterogeneous groups • Facilitates cross-cultural research • Fosters collaborative research and confirmation of data analysis SMPC Conference

    47. Contact Info Dr. Scott D. LipscombInstitute for Music ResearchThe University of Texas at San Antoniolipscomb@utsa.edu http://imr.utsa.edu/lipscomb/ SMPC Conference

    48. Model of Film Music Perception(original, 1994) SMPC Conference