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Nonwestern Music. Reflects/expresses world’s diversity. Each culture has its music practice. Some have all three—folk, pop, and classical. These musics influence western music. Especially true in the twentieth century. French composer Claude Debussy . British rocker George Harrison.

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Nonwestern Music


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    1. Nonwestern Music Reflects/expresses world’s diversity Each culture has its music practice • Some have all three—folk, pop, and classical These musics influence western music • Especially true in the twentieth century • French composer Claude Debussy • British rocker George Harrison • Jazz artist John Coltrane PART VII—NONWESTERN MUSIC

    2. Chapter 1: Music in Nonwestern Cultures Characteristics of Nonwestern Music It reflects its supporting culture • Frequently linked with religion, dance and drama • Often used to communicate messages and relate traditions Chapter 1

    3. Oral Tradition Frequently transmitted by oral tradition • Music notation far less important than in western culture • Many cultures do not have a music notation • When they do, it serves as a record, not for teaching or performance Chapter 1

    4. Improvisation Improvisation is frequently basic to the music • Improvisation usually based on traditional melodic phrases and rhythmic patterns Chapter 1

    5. Voices Singing usually main way of making music Vocal approach, timbre, and techniques vary throughout the world • Nasal sound • Strained tone • Throat singing • Many others Chapter 1

    6. Instruments Four types based upon sound production: • Membranophones—stretched skin • Primarily drums • Chordophones—stretched string • Harp-type • Aerophones—performer’s breath • Flutes, trumpets, etc. • Idiophones—instrument’s body is sound generator • Bells, gongs, scrapers, rattles, etc. Chapter 1

    7. Style and application within culture causes particular types of instruments to dominate • Strings allow great flexibility of pitch • Idiophones/membranophones: rhythmic emphasis • Aerophones aid in outdoor performance Geography and materials availability influences Religion also influences instrumentation Chapter 1

    8. Melody, Rhythm, and Texture Most nonwestern musics are monophonic • Sometimes accompanied by a drone • Some cultures use heterophony • All perform same melody with different ornamentation Chapter 1

    9. Scales in nonwestern music are frequently quite different than western musical scales • Intervals between tones can be larger or smaller Much nonwestern music has very complex rhythms Chapter 1

    10. Interaction between Nonwestern and Western Music Nonwestern music has been greatly impacted by western influences due to: • Increased urbanization • Spread of technology • Almost worldwide access to recorded music Some governments subsidize traditional music to preserve cultural heritage Chapter 1

    11. Chapter 2: Music in Sub-Saharan Africa Africa is divided into two parts: above and below the Sahara Desert • Above: Muslim, Arabic-speaking, music closely related to that of the Middle East • Below: Extremely diverse, many religions, cultures, and languages (over 700) Chapter 2

    12. Though Sub-Saharan music is diverse, there are some similarities: • Complex rhythms and polyrhythms • Percussive sounds • Wide variety of instrumental ensembles • Vocal music often a soloist and responding chorus Chapter 2

    13. Music in Society Music permeates African life from religion, entertainment, and magic to rites of passage It is so interwoven into life that the abstract word “music” is not used by many peoples Chapter 2

    14. Closely associated with dancing in ceremonies, rituals, and celebrations • Dancers frequently play and sing while dancing Music is a social activity—everyone joins in No musical notation—passed by oral tradition Chapter 2

    15. Elements of African Music Rhythm and Percussion Complex rhythms and polyrhythms predominate Dancers choose to follow any of the various rhythms The body used as an instrument • Clapping, stamping, slapping thigh/chest Chapter 2

    16. Vocal Music Wide variety of sounds, even within a single piece • Call and response extremely common Percussion ostinato frequently accompanies singers Short musical phrases repeated to different words Chapter 2

    17. Texture Often homophonic or polyphonic • This is unlike most nonwestern musics Same melody often sung at many pitch levels Chapter 2

    18. African Instruments Idiophones Most common African instrument Most are of indefinite pitch Xylophones, a favorite, come in many sizes “Talking drum” with slit in side can produce two to four tones Chapter 2

    19. Membranophones Used in many ceremonial and work-pace applications • Drum manufacture often accompanied by special rites Drums usually played in groups—multiple players Variety of shapes, sizes, and forms Chapter 2

    20. Aerophones and Chordophones Flutes and trumpets (of wood and horn) most common • Reed instruments less widespread Chordophones plucked or struck, gourd resonators Chapter 2

    21. Listening Ompeh Song from central Ghana Claude Debussy Listening Outline: p. 411 Brief Set, CD 4:66 Music of the Akan-speaking peoples in Ghana. Listen for: Call and response Solo vocalist and chorus Percussion ensemble Chapter 2

    22. Chapter 3: Classical Music of India Musical traditions date back over 3,000 years Two main types of classical music • Hindustani: secular, court music from Northern India (including Pakistan) • Absorbed many Persian elements due to Muslim Persian rulers • Karnatak: temple music from South India • Developed along its own lines Chapter 3

    23. Performers Music viewed as a spiritual discipline Oral tradition—study by apprenticeship Improvisation Very important, sophisticated, and developed Guided by melodic and rhythmic formula Must study for years before allowed improvise Chapter 3

    24. Elements of Indian Classical Music Music is based upon the human voice • Pitch range limited to about four octaves Highly embellished melody, both vocal and instrumental, is characteristic Melodies almost always accompanied by a drone instrument Chapter 3

    25. Melodic Structure: Raga Melody exists within a framework called a raga—a defined pattern of notes • Each raga has an ascending and descending form Raga means “color” or “atmosphere” • The melody “colors the mind” Each raga associated with a particular mood • Also linked with gods, seasons, festivals, and times of day Chapter 3

    26. Rhythmic Structure: Tala Rhythm is organized into blocks or cycles, each called a tala • Tala range from 3-100 beats in length • 6-16 is most common • Ten-beat tala jhaptal divided 2—3—2—3 • |1 2 |3 4 5 |6 7 |8 9 10| • Ten-beat tala shultal divided 4—2—4 • |1 2 3 4 |5 6 |7 8 9 10| Chapter 3

    27. Instruments Vocal music most important in India Many types of instruments • Many instruments associated with specific gods Sitar most popular chordophone • Long necked, lute (guitar) like instrument • 7 plucked strings, 9-13 sympathetically vibrating Drums of many sizes • Tabla and mridangam drums most common Chapter 3

    28. Ravi Shankar—sitar Tambura Tabla Chapter 3

    29. Listening Maru-Bihag Ravi Shankar Listening Guide: p. 415 Brief Set, CD 3:69 Listen for: Raga and tala organization Heavy reliance on stringed instruments Extensive improvisation Nonwestern musical form Chapter 3