Periods of Music • Aim of unit: • To learn about the periods of music required for Higher Music • Aim of lesson: • To learn about the Baroque Period • By the end of the lesson you should: • Be able to describe Baroque vocal music
Baroque • Music written between c. 1600-1750 • Famous composers include Bach, Handel and Vivaldi • Development of new forms of music such as opera, concerto, and oratorio
Baroque Period • Originated in Italy • Architecture – very extravagant and intricately detailed • Art – heavily influenced by religion, theatrical and dramatic in style • Music – very ordered, lively and tuneful
Polyphony Harpsichord Major/Minor Long, flowing melodies Imitation Sequence Dynamics Ornaments Oratorio Cantata Passion Opera Chorale Concerto Forms Suite Ternary Da Capo Aria Fugue Canon Chorale Prelude Key Musical Features
Opera • A musical drama featuring singing, acting, set, costumes and orchestral accompaniment • Operas are usually written in a foreign language such as Italian or German video
Oratorio • A story from the Bible set to music • Features soloists, chorus and orchestra • Can include recitative, arias and duets • Is performed without acting or stage design • Can be in English or German Praise Him Zion Hosanna Lord Rejoice
Recitative • A type of vocal writing where the music follows the rhythm of speech. It is used in operas to move the story or plot on. video
Aria • A song with orchestral accompaniment which is heard in opera
Cantata • A small-scale oratorio • Features soloists, chorus and orchestra
Passion • An oratorio which is based on the ‘Passion’, the Crucifixion of Christ. • Text is in German and features chorales as well as recitatives, arias and choruses video
Chorale • A hymn tune sung in German
Female Voices • Soprano – Highest female voice • Mezzo-Soprano - A female singer whose voice range lies between that of a soprano and an alto • Alto – Lowest female voice
Male Voices • Counter Tenor - A male adult voice whose range is higher than a tenor's • Tenor - Highest male voice • Baritone - A male voice whose range lies between that of Bass and Tenor. • Bass – Lowest male voice 2 videos
A Capella • Unaccompanied singing
Melisma Vocal music in which several notes are sung to one syllable
Syllabic Vocal music where each syllable is given one note only
Column A Column B 1. Tick one box from column A to identify the voice and one box from column B to identify the type of composition Recitative Soprano Chorale Counter Tenor Opera Baritone Passion Bass
2. Tick three boxes to describe what you hear Opera Alto Soprano Ground Bass Oratorio Melisma
3. Tick one box to describe the type of composition Passion Oratorio Recitative Opera
4. Tick three boxes to describe the music a cappella syllabic consort homophonic aria chorale
Concerto • A work for soloist and orchestra e.g. solo violin and orchestra, solo piano and orchestra etc video
Concerto Grosso • A type of concerto in which a group of soloists (concertino) is combined and contrasted with a larger group (ripieno). video
Harpsichord • Keyboard instrument • Strings inside are plucked when a key is pressed • No dynamics video
Basso Continuo • A bass line (basso continuo) played by cello, bass, viola or bassoon. In addition the harpsichord, organ or lute player was expected to fill in harmonies built on that bass line. Sometimes figures were written under the bass line indicating the chords the composer would like played. This was called figured bass.
Chorale Prelude • An extended composition for organ based on a chorale melody. The melody can be treated in a variety of ways, e.g. fugal style and variation form. video
Canon • Strict imitation. After one part starts to play or sing a melody, another part enters shortly afterwards with exactly the same melody. video
Fugue • A contrapuntal piece based on a theme (subject) announced in one voice part alone, then imitated by other voices in close succession. video
Polyphony/Contrapuntal • Texture which consists of two or more melodic lines, possibly of equal importance and which weave independently of each other.
Ternary Form • A B A. - A form where the first section is always repeated at the end.
Da Capo Aria • An aria in Ternary form (ABA) used in opera and oratorio in the 17th and 18th centuries.
Suite • A set of dances or a collection of pieces which are part of a larger scale work.
Imitation • Where the melody is immediately copied by another part. It need not be an exact copy.
Sequence • A melodic phrase which is immediately repeated at a higher or lower pitch.
Dynamics Loud Quite Loud Quite Soft Soft • Forte: • Mezzo-Forte: • Mezzo-Piano: • Piano:
Crescendo • To gradually become louder
Diminuendo • To gradually become quieter
Ornaments • Embellishments or decorations to the melody
Trill • Rapid and repeated movement between two adjacent notes.
Turn • Four notes which turn round the main note with the note above, the main note, the note below, and the main note again. An inverted turn starts with the note below reversing the process.
Mordent • An ornament which sounds the main note, the note above and then the main note again. An inverted mordent sounds the main note, the note below and then the main note again.
Appoggiatura • An ornament which sounds like a leaning note
Acciaccatura • An ornament which sounds like a crushed note played very quickly on the beat or just before it.
Obbligato • A prominent solo instrument part in a piece of vocal music.
Countermelody • A melody played against the main melody
Cadenza • A passage of music which allows soloists to display their technical ability in singing or playing an instrument. • Most commonly found in concerto cadenza
Tierce de Picardie • The final chord of a piece of music in the minor key is changed to major • The light at the end of the tunnel