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Periods of Music. Aim of unit: To learn about the periods of music required for Higher Music Aim of lesson: To learn about the Baroque Period By the end of the lesson you should: Be able to describe Baroque vocal music. Baroque. Music written between c. 1600-1750

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Periods of Music

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    1. Periods of Music • Aim of unit: • To learn about the periods of music required for Higher Music • Aim of lesson: • To learn about the Baroque Period • By the end of the lesson you should: • Be able to describe Baroque vocal music

    2. Baroque • Music written between c. 1600-1750 • Famous composers include Bach, Handel and Vivaldi • Development of new forms of music such as opera, concerto, and oratorio

    3. Baroque Period • Originated in Italy • Architecture – very extravagant and intricately detailed • Art – heavily influenced by religion, theatrical and dramatic in style • Music – very ordered, lively and tuneful

    4. Polyphony Harpsichord Major/Minor Long, flowing melodies Imitation Sequence Dynamics Ornaments Oratorio Cantata Passion Opera Chorale Concerto Forms Suite Ternary Da Capo Aria Fugue Canon Chorale Prelude Key Musical Features

    5. Choral Music

    6. Opera • A musical drama featuring singing, acting, set, costumes and orchestral accompaniment • Operas are usually written in a foreign language such as Italian or German video

    7. Oratorio • A story from the Bible set to music • Features soloists, chorus and orchestra • Can include recitative, arias and duets • Is performed without acting or stage design • Can be in English or German Praise Him Zion Hosanna Lord Rejoice

    8. Recitative • A type of vocal writing where the music follows the rhythm of speech. It is used in operas to move the story or plot on. video

    9. Aria • A song with orchestral accompaniment which is heard in opera

    10. Cantata • A small-scale oratorio • Features soloists, chorus and orchestra

    11. Passion • An oratorio which is based on the ‘Passion’, the Crucifixion of Christ. • Text is in German and features chorales as well as recitatives, arias and choruses video

    12. Chorale • A hymn tune sung in German

    13. Female Voices • Soprano – Highest female voice • Mezzo-Soprano - A female singer whose voice range lies between that of a soprano and an alto • Alto – Lowest female voice

    14. Male Voices • Counter Tenor - A male adult voice whose range is higher than a tenor's • Tenor - Highest male voice • Baritone - A male voice whose range lies between that of Bass and Tenor. • Bass – Lowest male voice 2 videos

    15. A Capella • Unaccompanied singing

    16. Melisma Vocal music in which several notes are sung to one syllable

    17. Syllabic Vocal music where each syllable is given one note only

    18. Column A Column B 1. Tick one box from column A to identify the voice and one box from column B to identify the type of composition Recitative Soprano Chorale Counter Tenor Opera Baritone Passion Bass

    19. 2. Tick three boxes to describe what you hear Opera Alto Soprano Ground Bass Oratorio Melisma

    20. 3. Tick one box to describe the type of composition Passion Oratorio Recitative Opera

    21. 4. Tick three boxes to describe the music a cappella syllabic consort homophonic aria chorale

    22. Instrumental Music

    23. Concerto • A work for soloist and orchestra e.g. solo violin and orchestra, solo piano and orchestra etc video

    24. Concerto Grosso • A type of concerto in which a group of soloists (concertino) is combined and contrasted with a larger group (ripieno). video

    25. Harpsichord • Keyboard instrument • Strings inside are plucked when a key is pressed • No dynamics video

    26. Basso Continuo • A bass line (basso continuo) played by cello, bass, viola or bassoon. In addition the harpsichord, organ or lute player was expected to fill in harmonies built on that bass line. Sometimes figures were written under the bass line indicating the chords the composer would like played. This was called figured bass.

    27. Chorale Prelude • An extended composition for organ based on a chorale melody. The melody can be treated in a variety of ways, e.g. fugal style and variation form. video

    28. Canon • Strict imitation. After one part starts to play or sing a melody, another part enters shortly afterwards with exactly the same melody. video

    29. Fugue • A contrapuntal piece based on a theme (subject) announced in one voice part alone, then imitated by other voices in close succession. video

    30. Polyphony/Contrapuntal • Texture which consists of two or more melodic lines, possibly of equal importance and which weave independently of each other.

    31. Forms

    32. Ternary Form • A B A. - A form where the first section is always repeated at the end.

    33. Da Capo Aria • An aria in Ternary form (ABA) used in opera and oratorio in the 17th and 18th centuries.

    34. Suite • A set of dances or a collection of pieces which are part of a larger scale work.

    35. Musical Devices

    36. Imitation • Where the melody is immediately copied by another part. It need not be an exact copy.

    37. Sequence • A melodic phrase which is immediately repeated at a higher or lower pitch.

    38. Dynamics Loud Quite Loud Quite Soft Soft • Forte: • Mezzo-Forte: • Mezzo-Piano: • Piano:

    39. Crescendo • To gradually become louder

    40. Diminuendo • To gradually become quieter

    41. Ornaments • Embellishments or decorations to the melody

    42. Trill • Rapid and repeated movement between two adjacent notes.

    43. Turn • Four notes which turn round the main note with the note above, the main note, the note below, and the main note again.  An inverted turn starts with the note below reversing the process.

    44. Mordent • An ornament which sounds the main note, the note above and then the main note again. An inverted mordent sounds the main note, the note below and then the main note again.

    45. Appoggiatura • An ornament which sounds like a leaning note

    46. Acciaccatura • An ornament which sounds like a crushed note played very quickly on the beat or just before it.

    47. Obbligato • A prominent solo instrument part in a piece of vocal music.

    48. Countermelody • A melody played against the main melody

    49. Cadenza • A passage of music which allows soloists to display their technical ability in singing or playing an instrument. • Most commonly found in concerto cadenza

    50. Tierce de Picardie • The final chord of a piece of music in the minor key is changed to major • The light at the end of the tunnel