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Romanticism in Music 1820-1900 Romantic Music in Society Middle Class Orchestras, operas, music societies Subscription series Virtuosos Conservatories Women Home Piano Romantic Style Characteristics Expression Diverse rhythm Greater dynamics More tone color Expressive melodies

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romantic music in society
Romantic Music in Society
  • Middle Class
    • Orchestras, operas, music societies
  • Subscription series
  • Virtuosos
  • Conservatories
  • Women
  • Home
  • Piano
romantic style characteristics
Romantic Style Characteristics
  • Expression
  • Diverse rhythm
  • Greater dynamics
  • More tone color
  • Expressive melodies
  • Chromatic harmonies
  • Homophonic texture
  • Subjective Poetry
  • Literature
    • Supernatural
    • Medieval
  • Medieval
  • Painting
    • Nature
    • Fantasy
nationalism and exoticism
Nationalism and Exoticism
  • Nationalism:composers deliberately created music with a specific national identity, using the folk songs, dances, legends, and history of their homelands. (as opposed to the more universal character of classical music)
  • Exoticism:Use of melodies, rhythms or instruments that suggest foreign lands.
program music
Program Music
  • Absolute Music:Music as Music.
  • Program Music:instrumental music associated with a story, poem, idea, or scene
  • cast-iron frame
  • hammers covered with felt
  • expanded range
  • pedals
Franz Schubert

Robert Schumann

Clara Schumann

Frèdèric Chopin

Franz Liszt

Felix Mendelssohn

Johannes Brahms

Hector Berlioz

Bedrich Smetana

Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky

Giuseppe Verdi

Richard Wagner

musicians as free artist
Musicians as "free artist”
  • conductor
  • teacher
  • critic
  • performer
the art song or lieder
The Art Song, or Lieder
  • art song or lieder: a composition for solo voice and piano. The accompaniment serves as an interpretive partner to the voice.
lieder makers
Lieder makers
  • Composers
    • Franz Peter Schubert
    • Robert Schumann
    • Johannes Brahms
  • Poets
    • Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
    • Heinrich Heine
lieder forms
Lieder - forms
  • strophic form:uses the same music for each stanza of the poem
  • through-composed form:uses new music for each stanza.
  • The Song Cycle:Romantic art songs grouped in a set.
franz schubert
Franz Schubert
  • b. Vienna
  • father was a schoolmaster
  • choirboy at the court chapel, scholarship to the Imperial Seminary.
  • taught at father's school briefly
  • bohemian life
  • composed for the cultivated middle class; he did not mingle with the aristocracy.
schubert music
Schubert - Music
  • 600 lieder (songs)
  • 9 symphonies
    • Symphony #8, the Unfinished
    • Symphony #9, The Great C Major
  • string quartets (and other chamber music)
  • sonatas (and other short pieces for piano)
  • masses
  • operas
listening erlk nig
  • "He paced up and down several times with the book; suddenly he sat down, and in no time at all (just as quickly as he could write) there was the glorious ballad finished on the paper.”
  • Text by Goethe
  • Acc. conveys the horse's hoofs
  • Four characters
robert schumann19
Robert Schumann
  • b. Zwickau, Germany
  • Law at the Leipzig University
  • @20, piano studies - Prof. Frederick von Wieck
  • Don't worry about my finger, I can compose without it.”
  • Clara
robert schumann20
Robert Schumann
  • New Journal of Music - founder and editor
  • reviews of new composers such as Chopin and Berlioz
  • Suicide attempt; asylum @44
robert schumann music
Robert Schumann - Music
  • Programmatic piano works
  • Lieder (art songs)
  • 4 symphonies
  • chamber music
clara wieck schumann
Clara Wieck Schumann
  • b. Leipzig, Germany
  • Child prodigy
  • Pianist
  • Married Robert Schumann
  • Close friend of Brahms
  • Performing artist
  • Stopped composing at 36
clara music
Clara - Music
  • Lieder
  • piano pieces
  • piano concerto
  • piano trio (piano, violin, and cello)
  • Romances
  • Romance in E-flat Minor for Piano, Op. 11, No. 1
  • Romanze – short lyrical piece for piano.
  • Ternary form
    • ABA
frederic francois chopin
Frederic Francois Chopin
  • b. Warsaw, Poland
  • Warsaw Conservatory
  • Pianist
fr d ric fran ois chopin
Frédéric François Chopin

Tour of Europe to Paris @21

  • Friends with the artistic elite
  • Performed in Aristocratic Salons
  • Piano teacher to the daughters of the rich
  • George Sand, aka Aurore Dudevant
  • Died of tuberculosis @ 39
chopin salon music
Chopin - Salon Music
  • Prélude:a short introductory piece
  • Nocturne: (night piece), a slow, lyrical, intimate composition for piano
  • Listening:Nocturne in E Flat Major, Op. 9, No. 2
  • Étude:a study piece designed to help a performer master specific technical difficulties
  • Listening:Etude in C Minor, Op. 10, No. 12
    • Revolutionary
chopin polish dances
Chopin – Polish Dances
  • not meant for ballroom dancing
    • Mazurka
    • Polonaise
  • Listening: Polonaise in A-Flat Major, Op. 55
franz liszt
Esterhaza, Hungary

Studied in Vienna and met




Nicolò Paganini - violin virtuoso

Chopin - "The Poet of the Piano”

Franz Liszt
  • Touring piano virtuoso - Greatest of his day
  • Weimar - court conductor, composer.
    • taught pianists free
    • supported Wagner's works
    • Biography of Chopin
liszt mistresses
Liszt - Mistresses
  • Countess Marie d'Agoult
    • Cosima
  • Princess Carolyne Sayn-Wittgenstein
    • Rome: Abbé Liszt
    • "Liszt was what a prince ought to be."
liszt music
Liszt - Music
  • Piano Music - Transcendental Etudes
  • created the Symphonic Poem or Tone Poem:a one-movement orchestral composition based to some extent on literary or pictorial ideas.
  • Faust Symphony
  • Dante Symphony
listening transcendental tude no 10 in f minor
Listening:Transcendental Étude No. 10 in F Minor
  • dedicated to Carl Czerny
  • "Studies in storm and dread meant to be played by, at most, ten or twelve players in the world." Robert Schumann
  • ABC B' A’ form
program music36
Program Music:
  • Program Music: instrumental music associated with a story, poem, idea or scene.
  • Program symphony:
  • Concert overture:
  • Symphonic poem or tone poem:
  • Incidental Music:
program symphony
Program symphony:
  • a symphony (with several movements) with a program.
concert overture
Concert overture:
  • one movement, in sonata form, not intended to usher in a stage work. An independent composition.
symphonic poem or tone poem
Symphonic poem or tone poem:
  • a one-movement orchestral composition based to some extent on literary or pictorial ideas
incidental music
Incidental Music:
  • music to be performed before and during a play
felix mendelssohn
Hamburg, Germany

prominent/wealthy Jewish family

gifted musician and artist

Overture to “A Midsummer Night’s Dream”

Felix Mendelssohn
listening overture to a midsummer night s dream
Listening:Overture to “A Midsummer Night's Dream”
  • Sonata Allegro Form
  • Enchanted Forest - introduction
  • Wood Nymphs - First Theme
  • King Oberon's Court - Bridge
  • Lovers - Second Theme
  • Actors and Donkey - Closing
  • Later added incidental music including the Wedding March
  • Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra conductor
  • @20 - Bach's St. Matthew Passion rekindled interest in Bach
  • Performed as pianist, organist, and conductor
  • Leipzig Conservatory founder/president
  • Conventional private life
  • Died of a stroke at 38
  • all forms except opera
  • Violin Concerto in E Minor
  • Midsummer Night's Dream Overture
  • Hebrides Overture
  • 4 Symphonies
    • Italian Symphony
    • Scotch Symphony
  • Elijah (oratorio)
  • Chamber music
hector berlioz
Hector Berlioz
  • b. near Grenoble, France
  • son of a physician, study medicine
  • Paris Conservatory
  • Prix de Rome
  • Symphonie fantastique
  • 1st Program Symphony
  • Music Journalist
  • Died embittered at 65
  • Most for orchestra
  • Symphonie fantastique: 1st Program Symphony
  • Romeo and Juliet
  • The Damnation of Faust, opera and oratorio
  • Les Troyans
  • Requiem, "I have seen one man listening in terror shaken to the depths of his soul, while his next neighbor could not catch an idea ....”
symphonie fantastique
Symphonie fantastique
  • Fourth movement,
  • "March to the Scaffold”
  • Harriet Smithson
  • idée fixe: a melody which represents a person, place or thing, (a musical noun)
    • the beloved
    • descending march to the scaffold
    • march through the street
listening movement v dream of a witches sabbath
Listening*: Movement V, "Dream of a Witches' Sabbath”
  • the beloved caricaturized
  • Funeral knell, Dies irae
  • Witches' dance
nationalism in nineteenth century music
Nationalism in Nineteenth-Century Music
  • nationalism: Inclusion of folk songs, dances, legends, and other national material in a composition to associate it with the composer's homeland.
  • Chopin, Poland
  • Edvard Grieg, Norway
  • Jean Sibelius, Finland
  • Smetana and Dvorak, Bohemia
  • Tchaikovsky, Russia
  • Verdi, Italy
  • Wagner, Germany
russia the five
Russia (The Five)
  • Mily Balakirev
  • César Cui
  • Alexander Borodin
  • Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov
  • Modest Mussorgsky
bed ich smetana
Bedřich Smetana
  • Founder of Czech nationalist music
  • Composer and conductor
  • The Bartered Bride - opera
  • Má Vlast (My Country)
listening the moldau by bed ich smetana
Listening:The Moldau, by Bedřich Smetana
  • Two springs
  • The river
  • Forest hunt
  • Peasant wedding
  • Moonlight dance
  • The river
  • The rapids of St. John
  • The river at its widest
  • Vyšehrad Castle
peter ilyich tchaikovsky
Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky
  • Russian
  • Government clerk
  • Music @21: St. Petersburg Conservatory
  • Professor @ Moscow Conservatory
  • Married: Antonina Ivanova Miliukova
  • Benefactress: Nadezdha von Meck
  • Died @53 mysterious circumstances
  • Six Symphonies (4-6 best known)
  • Piano Concerto No. 1 in B Flat
  • Violin Concerto
  • Romeo and Juliet (overture-fantasy)
  • Ballets
  • Swan Lake
  • Sleeping Beauty
  • Nutcracker
  • Orchestral showpieces
  • Marche slav
  • Overture 1812
listening romeo and juliet overture fantasy
*Listening:Romeo and Juliet, Overture-Fantasy
  • Sonata Form
  • Friar Lawrence - intro (5 min.)
  • Feud between Montagues and the Capulets - First Theme
  • Love theme - Second Theme
  • Orthodox Hymn in Coda
johannes brahms
Johannes Brahms
  • b. Hamburg, Germany
  • Son of a bass player - poor family
  • played piano in waterfront bars
  • Schumann
  • Met on tour at age 20
  • “young eagle”
  • Lived in the Schumann home for two years after Robert was committed
  • Lifelong friendship with Clara
  • Hamburg Philharmonic - snubbed
  • Vienna, Austria
  • composer
  • teacher
  • pianist
  • Died of Cancer at age 64
  • Music: heir to Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven
  • 4 symphonies
  • #1 dubbed, "Beethoven's 10th“
  • 2 piano concertos
  • 1 violin concerto
  • piano pieces
  • chamber music
  • 200 lieder (songs) including Brahms's Lullaby
  • German Requiem
listening symphony no 3 in f major
Listening:Symphony No. 3 in F Major
  • Mvt. 3
  • Ternary ABA
  • Not the usual scherzo
giuseppe verdi
Giuseppe Verdi
  • b. near Bussetto
  • Milan, studies
  • La Scala
  • Parliament –
    • Viva "Vittorio Emmanuele, Re D'Italia“
  • For the mass public
  • Emphasis on expressive vocal melody
  • used duets, trios, quartets, and choruses
  • Oberto - First opera
  • Nabucco first big success
  • Rigoletto
  • Il Trovatore
  • La Traviata
final operas
Final operas
  • Aïda
  • Otello
  • Falstaff
    • Last two based on Shakespeare plays
listening rigoletto la donna mobile
Listening:Rigoletto, "La donna è mobile”
  • Aria
  • Vocal melody dominates
  • Simple orchestral accompaniment
richard wagner
Richard Wagner
  • b. Leipzig, Germany
  • son of theater musicians
  • Conductor - German theater
  • Paris
  • Dresden, Conductor of Dresden Opera
  • Revolutionary due to accumulated debts
  • Switzerland
  • King Ludwig of Bavaria
  • Munich Opera, Bayreuth Opera
  • Cosima Liszt von Bülow
  • German nationalist
  • absolute self-conviction
  • Died in Venice
    • (heart attack)
  • Wrote his own librettos
  • medieval German legends
  • heroes, gods, demigods
  • music dramas
  • unending melody:continuous musical flow instead of traditional arias, recitatives and ensembles
  • speech song inspired by rhythms of the German language
  • emphasis on the orchestration
  • Leitmotif:A short musical idea associated with a person, an object, or a thought in the drama. (very similar to Berlioz' idée fixe)
  • Rienzi: first music drama, done in the tradition of French Grand Opera
  • Lohengrin
  • Die Meistersinger
  • Fliegen Hollander
the ring of the nibelung
The Ring of the Nibelung
  • Das Rheingold
  • Die Walküre
  • Siegfried
  • Götterdammerung
more music dramas
More Music Dramas
  • Tannhäuser
  • Tristan and Isolde
  • Parsifal