Romanticism in Music • 1820-1900
Romantic Music in Society • Middle Class • Orchestras, operas, music societies • Subscription series • Virtuosos • Conservatories • Women • Home • Piano
Romantic Style Characteristics • Expression • Diverse rhythm • Greater dynamics • More tone color • Expressive melodies • Chromatic harmonies • Homophonic texture
Influences • Subjective Poetry • Literature • Supernatural • Medieval • Medieval • Painting • Nature • Fantasy
Nationalism and Exoticism • Nationalism:composers deliberately created music with a specific national identity, using the folk songs, dances, legends, and history of their homelands. (as opposed to the more universal character of classical music) • Exoticism:Use of melodies, rhythms or instruments that suggest foreign lands.
Program Music • Absolute Music:Music as Music. • Program Music:instrumental music associated with a story, poem, idea, or scene
Piano • cast-iron frame • hammers covered with felt • expanded range • pedals
Franz Schubert Robert Schumann Clara Schumann Frèdèric Chopin Franz Liszt Felix Mendelssohn Johannes Brahms Hector Berlioz Bedrich Smetana Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky Giuseppe Verdi Richard Wagner Musicians
Musicians as "free artist” • conductor • teacher • critic • performer
The Art Song, or Lieder • art song or lieder: a composition for solo voice and piano. The accompaniment serves as an interpretive partner to the voice.
Lieder makers • Composers • Franz Peter Schubert • Robert Schumann • Johannes Brahms • Poets • Johann Wolfgang von Goethe • Heinrich Heine
Lieder - forms • strophic form:uses the same music for each stanza of the poem • through-composed form:uses new music for each stanza. • The Song Cycle:Romantic art songs grouped in a set.
Franz Schubert • b. Vienna • father was a schoolmaster • choirboy at the court chapel, scholarship to the Imperial Seminary. • taught at father's school briefly • bohemian life • composed for the cultivated middle class; he did not mingle with the aristocracy.
Schubert - Music • 600 lieder (songs) • 9 symphonies • Symphony #8, the Unfinished • Symphony #9, The Great C Major • string quartets (and other chamber music) • sonatas (and other short pieces for piano) • masses • operas
Listening:Erlkönig • "He paced up and down several times with the book; suddenly he sat down, and in no time at all (just as quickly as he could write) there was the glorious ballad finished on the paper.” • Text by Goethe • Acc. conveys the horse's hoofs • Four characters
Robert Schumann • b. Zwickau, Germany • Law at the Leipzig University • @20, piano studies - Prof. Frederick von Wieck • Don't worry about my finger, I can compose without it.” • Clara
Robert Schumann • New Journal of Music - founder and editor • reviews of new composers such as Chopin and Berlioz • Suicide attempt; asylum @44
Robert Schumann - Music • Programmatic piano works • Lieder (art songs) • 4 symphonies • chamber music
Listening: Estrella • A B A form
Clara Wieck Schumann • b. Leipzig, Germany • Child prodigy • Pianist • Married Robert Schumann • Close friend of Brahms • Performing artist • Stopped composing at 36
Clara - Music • Lieder • piano pieces • piano concerto • piano trio (piano, violin, and cello) • Romances
Listening: • Romance in E-flat Minor for Piano, Op. 11, No. 1 • Romanze – short lyrical piece for piano. • Ternary form • ABA
Frederic Francois Chopin • b. Warsaw, Poland • Warsaw Conservatory • Pianist
Frédéric François Chopin Tour of Europe to Paris @21 • Friends with the artistic elite • Performed in Aristocratic Salons • Piano teacher to the daughters of the rich • George Sand, aka Aurore Dudevant • Died of tuberculosis @ 39
Chopin - Salon Music • Prélude:a short introductory piece • Nocturne: (night piece), a slow, lyrical, intimate composition for piano • Listening:Nocturne in E Flat Major, Op. 9, No. 2 • Étude:a study piece designed to help a performer master specific technical difficulties • Listening:Etude in C Minor, Op. 10, No. 12 • Revolutionary
Chopin – Polish Dances • not meant for ballroom dancing • Mazurka • Polonaise • Listening: Polonaise in A-Flat Major, Op. 55
Esterhaza, Hungary Studied in Vienna and met Schubert Beethoven Paris Nicolò Paganini - violin virtuoso Chopin - "The Poet of the Piano” Franz Liszt
Liszt • Touring piano virtuoso - Greatest of his day • Weimar - court conductor, composer. • taught pianists free • supported Wagner's works • Biography of Chopin
Liszt - Mistresses • Countess Marie d'Agoult • Cosima • Princess Carolyne Sayn-Wittgenstein • Rome: Abbé Liszt • "Liszt was what a prince ought to be."
Liszt - Music • Piano Music - Transcendental Etudes • created the Symphonic Poem or Tone Poem:a one-movement orchestral composition based to some extent on literary or pictorial ideas. • Faust Symphony • Dante Symphony
Listening:Transcendental Étude No. 10 in F Minor • dedicated to Carl Czerny • "Studies in storm and dread meant to be played by, at most, ten or twelve players in the world." Robert Schumann • ABC B' A’ form
Program Music: • Program Music: instrumental music associated with a story, poem, idea or scene. • Program symphony: • Concert overture: • Symphonic poem or tone poem: • Incidental Music:
Program symphony: • a symphony (with several movements) with a program.
Concert overture: • one movement, in sonata form, not intended to usher in a stage work. An independent composition.
Symphonic poem or tone poem: • a one-movement orchestral composition based to some extent on literary or pictorial ideas
Incidental Music: • music to be performed before and during a play
Hamburg, Germany prominent/wealthy Jewish family gifted musician and artist Overture to “A Midsummer Night’s Dream” Felix Mendelssohn
Listening:Overture to “A Midsummer Night's Dream” • Sonata Allegro Form • Enchanted Forest - introduction • Wood Nymphs - First Theme • King Oberon's Court - Bridge • Lovers - Second Theme • Actors and Donkey - Closing • Later added incidental music including the Wedding March
Leipzig • Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra conductor • @20 - Bach's St. Matthew Passion rekindled interest in Bach • Performed as pianist, organist, and conductor • Leipzig Conservatory founder/president • Conventional private life • Died of a stroke at 38
Music • all forms except opera • Violin Concerto in E Minor • Midsummer Night's Dream Overture • Hebrides Overture • 4 Symphonies • Italian Symphony • Scotch Symphony • Elijah (oratorio) • Chamber music
Hector Berlioz • b. near Grenoble, France • son of a physician, study medicine • Paris Conservatory • Prix de Rome • Symphonie fantastique • 1st Program Symphony • Music Journalist • Died embittered at 65
Music • Most for orchestra • Symphonie fantastique: 1st Program Symphony • Romeo and Juliet • The Damnation of Faust, opera and oratorio • Les Troyans • Requiem, "I have seen one man listening in terror shaken to the depths of his soul, while his next neighbor could not catch an idea ....”
Symphonie fantastique • Fourth movement, • "March to the Scaffold” • Harriet Smithson • idée fixe: a melody which represents a person, place or thing, (a musical noun) • the beloved • descending march to the scaffold • march through the street
Listening*: Movement V, "Dream of a Witches' Sabbath” • the beloved caricaturized • Funeral knell, Dies irae • Witches' dance
Nationalism in Nineteenth-Century Music • nationalism: Inclusion of folk songs, dances, legends, and other national material in a composition to associate it with the composer's homeland. • Chopin, Poland • Edvard Grieg, Norway • Jean Sibelius, Finland • Smetana and Dvorak, Bohemia • Tchaikovsky, Russia • Verdi, Italy • Wagner, Germany
Russia (The Five) • Mily Balakirev • César Cui • Alexander Borodin • Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov • Modest Mussorgsky