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Music psychology, musicology, musical practice. Richard Parncutt University of Graz Winter semester 2006. Aims. Cover and analyse interdisciplinary research between music psychology and musicology music psychology and music practice that has been done could be done

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Music psychology, musicology, musical practice


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    1. Music psychology, musicology, musical practice Richard Parncutt University of Graz Winter semester 2006

    2. Aims • Cover and analyse interdisciplinary research • between • music psychology and musicology • music psychology and music practice • that • has been done • could be done • Focus on the big picture • Detail is important but not the main focus • Consider potential areas for future research • More questions than answers

    3. Tentative plan (1)

    4. Tentative plan (2)

    5. Other recent presentations

    6. Older presentations and papers Psychology, theory, analysis: • Tone profiles following short chord progressions: Top-down or bottom-up? • Perception of musical patterns: Ambiguity, emotion, culture • Enrichment of music theory pedagogy by computer-based repertoire analysis and perceptual-cognitive theory • Middle-out analysis and its psychological basis • Perceptual versus historical origins of musical materials • Tonality as implication-realization: Key profiles as pitch salience profiles of final triads in Renaissance music • Towards a perceptual theory of bebop harmony • Perceptual underpinnings of analytic techniques: From Rameau to Terhardt, Riemann to Krumhansl, Schenker to Bregman • Tonal implications of atonal music • Critical comparison of acoustical and perceptual theories of the origin of musical scales

    7. Why music psychology? Humans spend enormous amounts of time, energy and resources on musical activities that are not directly related to their survival. Why? Humans identify with the music they hear. How and why? Music enhances quality of life. How and why?

    8. Aims of music psychology • Description/explanation of • musical behaviour • musical experience • Applications • musicology • psychology • musical practice

    9. Musical relevance of music psychology • Music theory and aesthetics • perception of musical structures • empirical testing of philosophical theories • Music education and performance • applied developmental music psychology • musical skills and techniques • Music history • history of musical syntax • personalities of composers and their music • Ethnomusicology • musical behaviours, cognition and experience in different cultures

    10. Empirical methods of (music) psychology • Quantitative methods • Data are numbers • Statistical analysis by computer • Probability of obtaining result by chance • Standard in cognitive psychology • Qualitative methods • Data are text • Content analysis • Exploratory: main themes • Bridge between sciences and humanities

    11. Areas of music psychology • Behaviours • Skills • Development • Perception of structure • Performance • Empirical aesthetics • Social psychology • Evolutionary music psychology

    12. Musical behaviors • Performing • Composing • Listening • Dancing • Cognitive engagement • Emotional responses

    13. Musical skills • learning a musical instrument • singing in a choir • playing by ear and imagining music • sightreading vs. playing from memory • improvising and composing • talent – nature or nurture?

    14. Musical development • behaviours • abilities • lifespan

    15. Perception of musical structure • melody, phrasing • harmony, tonality • rhythm, meter

    16. Music performance research The daily lives and challenges of professional and amateur musicians who… • perform • from scores or by improvising • alone or in groups, • compose or arrange • on paper • with computers

    17. Empirical music aesthetics • Dependence of musical preferences/judgments on • musical structure • social influences

    18. Social psychology of music • everyday music listening • while driving, eating, shopping, reading... • musical rituals and gatherings • religious, festive, sporting, political... • music and identity • personal • group

    19. Evolutionary music psychology • Adaptation or exaptation? • evolutionary parasites • protomusic in non-human animals • Individual survival • music and non-musical abilities • Group survival • music as “social glue” • Music, ritual, spirituality, trance • mother-infant communication

    20. Subdisciplines of psychology • Biopsychology • neuropsychology • Psychobiology and evolutionary psychology • genetic and biological bases of behaviour • Perception • sensation, psychoacoustics • Cognition • language, thinking, consciousness, learning, memory • Motivation and emotion • Development • childhood and life-span • individual differences • personality • skill • talent, creativity, intelligence • social psychology and cognition • health • stress, coping, therapy, psychological disorders

    21. Music psychology sources • Books • Journals • Conferences

    22. Recent general books • ICMPC Bologna 2006 • Abstract booklet; proceedings in internet • De la Motte-Haber, Helga • Musikpsychologie • Oerter & Stoffer • Spezielle Musikpsychologie • Stoffer & Oerter • Allgemeine Musikpsychologie • Deutsch, Diana • The psychology of music • Bruhn, Herbert • Handbuch Musikpsychologie

    23. Main journals Music psychology • Music Perception (MuWi-IB) • Psychology of Music (KUG-UB) • Jahrbuch Musikpsychologie (MuWi- IB) Systematic musicology • Musicae Scientiae (MuWi-IB) • Journal of New Music Research (MuWi-IB) Other • Psychomusicology • Empirical Musicology Review • Codex Flores

    24. Journals in related disciplines • Psychology • Psychological Review • etc. • Neuroscience • Nature Neuroscience • etc. • Acoustics and psychoacoustics • Journal of the Acoustical Society of America • Acta Acustica • Computing • Computer Music Journal • Computing in Musicology • Science in general • Nature, science

    25. Music journals • Music theory/analysis • Music Theory Spectrum • Music Analysis • etc. • Music performance, e.g. • Music Performance Research • Journal of Research in Singing • etc.

    26. Applied music journals • Music therapy • Journal of Music Therapy • etc. • Music education • Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education • etc. • Music medicine • Medical Problems of Performing Artists • etc.

    27. Music Psychology conferences Global • International Conference of Music Perception and Cognition Continental • European Society for the Cognitive Sciences of Music • Society for Music Perception and Cognition (USA) Regional • Deutsche Gesellschaft für Musikpsychologie • Society for Education, Music and Psychology Research (UK) • International Symposium on Cognition and Musical Arts (Brazil) • Japanese Society for Music Perception and Cognition • Australian Music and Psychology Society • Asia-Pacific Society for the Cognitive Sciences of Music

    28. General information http://www-gewi.uni-graz.at/staff/parncutt /musicpsychology.html

    29. Aims, methods, structure and content of modern musicology 25.10.06

    30. Structure of today‘s presentation • Definitions of “musicology” • Structure of musicology • Musicological interdisciplinarity

    31. Part 1 Definitions of “musicology” • in theory • in practice

    32. “Musicology” in theory (all) scholarship about (all) music? • Grove • MGG • Dizionario della musica e dei musicisti

    33. Musicological subdisciplines • Core disciplines • performance, composition, theory, analysis • Parent disciplines • acoustics, computing, multimedia, sociology, cultural studies, feminism and gender, history, anthropology/ethnology, psychology, physiology/medicine, education, therapy… Any academic discipline that is • serious and established • capable of explaining musical phenomena

    34. “Musicology” in practice • music history of western cultural elites • sources: historical documents • associated methods and techniques • tradition since 19th century

    35. “Musicology” journals • Acta musicologica • Archiv für Musikwissenschaft • Current Musicology • Journal of the American Musicological Society • Journal of Musicological Research • Journal of Musicology • Musikforschung • Revue de Musicologie • Studien zur Musikwissenschaft ... plus many musicology journals of smaller countries

    36. Tacit assumptions of “musicology” (Obviously) (more) important: • history • western culture and music • music of cultural elites Eurocentricity? 19th-century colonialism?

    37. Solutions: Journals • Acknowledge problem in preface • Change name, e.g. Western Music Western Artificial Music History of Notated Western Music • Change scope of journal

    38. Part 2 The structure of musicology • history of musical thought • sciences and humanities • the tripartite model • the evolution of disciplinary structures

    39. History of musical thought • Ancient civilisations • physics/mathematics (number ratios) • psychology (emotion) • Middle ages in Europe • quadrivium : arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, “music” • 18th and 19th centuries • central position of history for national identity • 20th century • expansion, diversification • 21st century • All musics, all appropriate questions and disciplines

    40. The relationship between musicological subdisciplines historical systematic ethnological 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000

    41. History of musical thought Antiquity and middle ages: antecedents of music theory, acoustics and psychology 19th century: music history plus auxiliary disciplines Now: all disciplinary approaches to all questions about all musics

    42. The central position of historical musicology in the 19th century • Western music: • esthetically superior • “Music”: • written works of the western canon • The main task of “musicology”: • document the artistry of white male genius

    43. Humanities and sciences: differences The tension between subjectivity and objectivity • 1. The object of research • humanities: researcher‘s own experience • sciences: the external world • 2. The distance between researcher and object • humanities: close (hermeneutics) • sciences: distant (data analysis) • 3. The generality of conclusions • humanities: complex, specific descriptions • sciences: simple, general descriptions Example : music psychology The objective versus the subjective approach

    44. Les sciences humaines et naturelles : les points communs • La recherche de la « verité » • intersubjectivité • rationalité • compréhension par explication • La compréhension des relations • causalité • prévision • La diversité • épistémologique • méthodologique

    45. Les sciences humaines et naturelles : un rapport synergétique

    46. Les sciences humaines et naturelles : L‘histoire de leur relation • XIXe siècle : • domination des sciences humaines • XXe siècle : • domination des sciences naturelles • XXIe siècle : • domination des sciences informatiques ? • nouvel équilibre entre sciences humaines et naturelles… • en général? • en musicologie?

    47. Les sciences humaines et naturelles : importance rélative Les sciences humaines : • rôle central de la culture • identité • qualité de la vie Les sciences naturelles : • rôle central de la technologie : • qualité de vie quotidienne • guerre et environnement  l’autodestruction de l’humanité

    48. Repertoire-based musicologies: Trends Source: Jonathan Stock , Current Musicology, 1998

    49. Tripartite model: USA “musicology” / theory / ethnomusicology Problems: • “musical sciences” are not “musicology” • too little communication between musicology/theory and ethnomusicology

    50. Tripartite model: Germany