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Chapter 1

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Chapter 1

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  1. Chapter 1 Themes in the Study of Life

  2. What is Biology?

  3. What is Biology? • Scientific study of Life • Filled with QUESTIONS • Good Questions • Questions that can be investigated

  4. What is Life?

  5. What is Life? • 7 Properties of Life

  6. What is Life? • 7 Properties of Life • Order • Evolutionary adaptation • Responding to the environment • Growth and development • Reproduction • Energy processing • Regulation

  7. What are the Major Themes of Biology

  8. Major Themes of Biology • New properties emerge at each level in the biological hierarchy • Organisms interact with their environments, exchanging matter and energy • Structure and function are correlated at all levels of biological organization • Cells are an organism’s basic units of structure and functions • The continuity of life is based on heritable information in the form of DNA • Feedback mechanisms regulate biological systems

  9. Evolution“Nothing makes sense except in the light of evolution”- Who Said This?

  10. Evolution“Nothing makes sense except in the light of evolution”Dobzhansky

  11. Evolution“Nothing makes sense except in the light of evolution”Dobzhansky • Core Theme • Evolution accounts for the unity and diversity of life • Its importance will demonstrate a large role in this course • Can always refer to Section 1.2 throughout the semester

  12. How do scientists pose and answer questions about the natural world?

  13. How is Biology examined?

  14. How is Biology examined? • Reductionist approach • Holistic approach • Systems biology

  15. How is Biology examined? • Reductionist approach

  16. How is Biology examined? • Reductionist approach • Reduce complex systems to simple components

  17. How is Biology examined? • Reductionist approach • Reduce complex systems to simple components • Holistic approach

  18. How is Biology examined? • Reductionist approach • Reduce complex systems to simple components • Holistic approach • Larger-scale, with the objective of understanding how the emergent properties work together

  19. How is Biology examined? • Reductionist approach • Reduce complex systems to simple components • Holistic approach • Larger-scale, with the objective of understanding how the emergent properties work together • Systems biology

  20. How is Biology examined? • Reductionist approach • Reduce complex systems to simple components • Holistic approach • Larger-scale, with the objective of understanding how the emergent properties work together • Systems biology • Goal is to construct models for the behavior of a whole systems

  21. What is inquiry?

  22. What is inquiry? • Inquiry is the search for information and explanation that often focuses on specific questions

  23. Scientists use two main forms of scientific inquiry • Discovery Science • Hypothesis-Based Science

  24. Scientists use two main forms of scientific inquiry • Discovery Science

  25. Scientists use two main forms of scientific inquiry • Discovery Science • Describing nature • More qualitative in nature • Can have quantitative aspects • Describes natural processes • Uses observation to gather information (directly or indirectly) with tools • Recorded observations are called data

  26. Scientists use two main forms of scientific inquiry • Hypothesis-Based Science

  27. Scientists use two main forms of scientific inquiry • Hypothesis-Based Science • Describing nature • More qualitative in nature • Can have quantitative aspects • Describes natural processes • Uses observation to gather information (directly or indirectly) with tools • Recorded observations are called data

  28. What is a hypothesis?

  29. What is a hypothesis? • Tentative answer to a well-framed question • Explanation on trial • Educated Guess that is based on experience and the data available from Observation

  30. What makes a Good Hypothesis?

  31. What makes a Good Hypothesis? • Testable • Falsifiable • Cannot be PROVEN • Gains credibility by surviving attempts to falsify it

  32. What makes a Good Hypothesis? • Testable

  33. What makes a Good Hypothesis? • Testable • A way to check the validity

  34. What makes a Good Hypothesis? • Testable • A way to check the validity • Falsifiable

  35. What makes a Good Hypothesis? • Testable • A way to check the validity • Falsifiable • There must be some observation or experiment that could reveal if such an idea is NOT true • Generally, scientists frame two or more alternative hypotheses and design experiments to falsify

  36. What makes a Good Hypothesis? • Testable • A way to check the validity • Falsifiable • There must be some observation or experiment that could reveal if such an idea is NOT true • Generally, scientists frame two or more alternative hypotheses and design experiments to falsify • Cannot be PROVEN

  37. What makes a Good Hypothesis? • Testable • A way to check the validity • Falsifiable • There must be some observation or experiment that could reveal if such an idea is NOT true • Generally, scientists frame two or more alternative hypotheses and design experiments to falsify • Cannot be PROVEN • Testing supports a hypothesis not by Proving it, but instead by not eliminating it through the falsification • It’s impossible to test ALL alternative hypothesis

  38. What makes a Good Hypothesis? • Testable • A way to check the validity • Falsifiable • There must be some observation or experiment that could reveal if such an idea is NOT true • Generally, scientists frame two or more alternative hypotheses and design experiments to falsify • Cannot be PROVEN • Testing supports a hypothesis not by Proving it, but instead by not eliminating it through the falsification • It’s impossible to test ALL alternative hypothesis • Gains credibility by surviving attempts to falsify it

  39. What are the Types of Data?

  40. Types of Data • Qualitative • Quantitative

  41. Types of Data • Qualitative

  42. Types of Data • Qualitative • Recorded descriptions rather than numerical • General observations • Colors

  43. Types of Data • Qualitative • Recorded descriptions rather than numerical • General observations • Colors • Quantitative

  44. Types of Data • Qualitative • Recorded descriptions rather than numerical • General observations • Colors • Quantitative • Recorded measurements • Numerical in nature

  45. What are theTypesof Reasoning

  46. Types of Reasoning • Inductive Reasoning • Deductive Reasoning

  47. Types of Reasoning • Inductive Reasoning

  48. Types of Reasoning • Inductive Reasoning • From induction • Derive generalizations from a large number of specific observations • Ex: • If every organisms that you have studied is made of cells, then it would be acceptable to induce that all organisms are made of cells.

  49. Types of Reasoning • Inductive Reasoning • From induction • Derive generalizations from a large number of specific observations • Ex: • If every organisms that you have studied is made of cells, then it would be acceptable to induce that all organisms are made of cells. • Deductive Reasoning

  50. Types of Reasoning • Inductive Reasoning • From induction • Derive generalizations from a large number of specific observations • Ex: • If every organisms that you have studied is made of cells, then it would be acceptable to induce that all organisms are made of cells. • Deductive Reasoning • Logic flows from general to specific • Usually take the form of prediction of experimental or observational results • Ex: • If all organisms are made of cells, and humans are organisms, then humans are composed of cells