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CHAPTER 1 1

CHAPTER 1 1

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CHAPTER 1 1

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  1. CHAPTER11 Wecontinueto Learnalotaboutthe SolarSystemby using SpaceExploration

  2. Section11.1TheSun page390 -Averagesized star -300,000more massive than Earth,99%of allmassinour solarsystem -Millionsof kmaway -Approx.5billionYearsold with 5billionmore togo!

  3. The Hugesize of thesun causes pressure tobuildupatthecenterof thesun asgravitypullsthe mass inward… ThermonuclearReactions turn H(hydrogen) He(helium)giving offHeat,Lightand UV radiationinthe process Heat,LightandUVradiation H He Pressure

  4. SolarRadiation–Energy (E)Emitted from thesuninthe form of ElectromagneticRadiation …E thatiscarriedorradiatedin theform of wavesthatrangein length,ex.Microwaves,radiowaves,UVwaves TheEarthislocatedinthe“GoldilocksZone”, nottoo hot,nottoocold,justright!

  5. SUNSPOTS– dark patches of slightly cooler(3500°C) surface areasonthe sun, theyincrease and decreasein numberonan11-yrcycle.Theymaybe relatedto changesin the Earth’s climate. SOLARFLARES–eruptionsof gasonthe sunssurface– can lasta fewhours, temperatures increaseupto 11,000,000°C CreatesSolarWinds

  6. SolarWind page393 HotE bubbles“pop” onthe surfaceofthe sunandsend highE particlesrushingpastEarth.Earthis protected fromthis solarwind byits magneticfield.Someof the particlesenterthe Earth’satmosphereat the poles wheretheycollidewith the gas intheatmosphereto createAuroras(Northern/Southernlights)page 394.

  7. SomesolarwindscandisturbEarth’s magneticfieldanddisable satellites, knockoutpowerlines,and expose astronautstohighlevelsof radiation

  8. Section 11.2 page398 Characteristicsof theCelestialBodies oftheSolarSystem

  9. ThePlanets Tobea planetyoumust… …orbit1 ormorestars …belarge enoughsoitsgravity holdsitin place …bethe onlybodyinitsorbital path

  10. AstronomicalUnits(AU) • Usedtomeasuredistancesin space 1AU=150millionkm (thedistancefromtheEarthtotheSun) 5.27AU 1AU

  11. Activity11-2A: TerrestrialandJovianPlanets Read Sectioon 11.2 of your text onthe planets andcompletethetablein your notes. MnemonicDeviceto Rememberthe orderofthePlanets??? Mercury,Venus,Earth,Mars,Jupiter, Saturn,Uranusand Neptune

  12. PLUTO NowconsideredDwarfPlanet –acelestialbodyorbitingtheSunthatis generallysmallerthanaplanetbutmassive enoughforitsowngravityto giveitaround shape.Howevertheyarenotstrongenough tocleartheirorbitofdebris Therearemany other“dwarf planets”some arebiggerandsomelikePluto havemoons

  13. AComparison of3dwarfplanetsand Earth,noticesome havemoonsandsome don’t

  14. COMETS • “dirty snowballs”composed • of ice, rock andgas • Originatefromthe Kuiper • BeltandOortCloud • Theytravelinlong ellipticalorbitsaroundthe sun whichareaffectedbythe gravitational pullsofotherplanets • Ithasa long dusttailassunlightstartsto • meltthe ice,thesecanstretchmillions ofkm • MostfamousHalley’scometwhichisvisable • every76yearsorso

  15. PeriodicityofComets: "Period"istheamountoftimeittakesanobjectin orbittoreturn toitsstartinglocation. Cometstravel inshortand longperiods aroundthe suninelliptical orbits

  16. TheellipticalorbitofHalley’sComet

  17. ASTEROIDS • Small bodiesbelievedtobe theleftoverremainsofthe formationoftheSolarSystem • Mostly found inan asteroidbeltbetweenMarsand Jupiter • They haveirregularshapes • Rangeinsizefroma • grainofsandup to1000km • Anasteroidup • to1kmwoulddevastateEarth

  18. Meteoroid–a rockychunk, brokenoffanasteroidor planet,whichfloatsthroughspace • Meteor–a meteoroidthatburnsupasitpasses throughEarths atmosphere,seen asa shootingstar • Meteorite–a meteoroid that doesnotburnupfullyintheEarthsatmosphereandhitsthe Earthssurface METEORS

  19. DeepImpactSites • Aplacewherea relativelysmallobject(meteorite)has collidedwithalargerobject(planet) • Producesa fairlycirculardepressioninthesurfaceof thelargerobjectreferredtoasanimpactcrater

  20. QUIZ Thursday, October 17, 2013 10 True/False 15 Multiple Choice 6 Matching 2 Short Answer Questions • Study Guide: • The Sun – characteristics, diagram, sunspots, solar flares, solar winds, etc • The Planets – characteristics, table of comparison for inner/outer planets • What is an astronomical unit? • Pluto • Comets • Asteroids • Meteors, meteoroid, meteorite • Deep impact sites • Worksheet for Section 11.3