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# Chapter 1

Chapter 1 . Science. Science. - concerned with making sense of the environment and what goes on around you. Concepts –mental image of tangible (blood, rocks, etc…) or intangible objects (motion, velocity, acceleration, etc…). Describing Properties of an Object. Properties – characteristics

## Chapter 1

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### Presentation Transcript

1. Chapter 1 Science

2. Science • - concerned with making sense of the environment and what goes on around you. • Concepts –mental image of tangible (blood, rocks, etc…) or intangible objects (motion, velocity, acceleration, etc…)

3. Describing Properties of an Object • Properties – characteristics • To describe the properties of an object, we generally use “referents” (describing something by comparing it to a more familiar object. Ex. Her eyes are as blue as the sky. • Ex. of Referents : Blue sky, green grass, lemon yellow

4. Quantifying Properties • Two major systems of standard units • - English System (pound, ounce, feet, yard) • - Metric System (meter, kilogram, Kelvin) • Measurements used to be based on the human body so standardization was needed. • US signed Treaty of the Meter with 16 other countries

5. 7 SI Standard Units • Length meter (m) • Mass kilogram (kg) • Time second (s) • Electric Current ampere (A) • Temperature Kelvin (K) • Amt. of Substance mole (mol) • Luminous Intensity candela cd

6. Metric Prefixes • Mega- • Kilo - • Hecto- • Deka- • ---- • Deci- • Centi- • Milli-

7. Doing the Math… • Using Dimensional Analysis or Ratios and Proportions • Hint: Unwanted units need to cancel out! • You should only be left with the unit that you need. • Note: Meaningful measurements have units!

8. Density • Density = mass of the substance volume of the substance Mass – is the amount of matter in an object Unit of Mass = gram or kilogram Volume – is the amount of space an object occupies Unit of Volume = Liter, mL or cm3

9. Scientific Investigation • A scientific investigation needs EVIDENCE. • The Scientific Method is used to conduct a Scientific Investigation.

10. Steps in the Scientific Method • Observation – beyond the scientists’ control • Developing Explanations of Observations • Hypothesis – an educated guess. What he thinks is going to happen • Experimentation – used to test hypothesis, can be controlled by scientists • Results • Conclusion • Modifications, if necessary  new hypothesis?

11. A Good Experiment must be: • 1. Repeatable • 2. Include measurements with the appropriate units (quantitative) • 3. Specific and limited

12. Science is therefore: • Gathering and testing information to make sense of what is going on around you. • Purpose of Science: To learn it so you can deduce the relationships that govern it.

13. Law vs. Theory • Scientific Laws – explanation of natural occurrences and phenomenon that has withstood the test of time; tells you “what” will happen if something is done. • Theory – attempt to explain common phenomena but has not yet withstood the test of time so it can still be changed. • - based on broad, working hypothesis based on extensive, experimental evidence. • - attempts to explain “why” something happens

14. Science, Nonscience and Pseudoscience • Science – uses reliable experiments - is repeatable and has predictive value - determines cause and effect - can only consider natural explanations of physical phenomena Nonscience – has no predictive value; low degree of cause and effect studies Pseudoscience – false or deceptive science

15. Misconceptions about Science • 1. Science is about memorization of facts. • 2. Science never knows anything. • 3. Science is all powerful and can solve any problem it is applied to. • 4. Science primary purpose is to make the world a better place to live.

16. Scientific Method Exercise • Application of Observation, hypothesis, etc… • Exercise 2: Can you solve it? • Exercise 3: Big Game Hunter!

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