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CHAPTER 1

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  1. CHAPTER 1 Floriculture - A Dynamic Industry

  2. What are commercial greenhouses used for? • 1. Fresh flowers

  3. 2. Flowering Plants

  4. 3. Green Plants

  5. 4. Bedding Plants

  6. 5. Vegetable Production

  7. 6. Woody Ornamental Propagation

  8. The desire to buy floral products is greater in which zone? Zone A Zone B Zone C

  9. The Answer A & B Zone A (frigid) Zone B (temperate) Zone C (sub-tropical)

  10. Most greenhouse production used to be located: • In northern parts of Europe, Japan, and the United States • Why? • Cheap heating fuel • Inefficient cooling technology • Population Centers (at least in US)

  11. Production is moving southward due to: • Expensive heating fuel costs • Development of more efficient cooling systems • Available, rapid transportation

  12. Texas Growers in the Top 100 • 2. Hines Wholesale $53.0 M • 6. Greenleaf Nursery 34.0 M • 18. Powell Plant Farms 17.5 M • 28. Lone Star Growers 10.7 M • 45. Hawkins Nursery 7.7 M • 47. Turkey Creek Farms 7.6 M • 58. Coop. Rose Growers 6.5 M • 72. Nortex Nursery 5.0 M

  13. 1. Florida 2. California 3. Oregon 4. Pennsylvania 5. New Jersey 6. Michigan 7. North Carolina 8. New York 9. Georgia 10. Alabama 11. Maryland 12. Ohio 13. Washington 14. Tennessee 15. Connecticut 16. Texas State Ranking in Nursery Production (greenhouse & outdoor)

  14. What is being grown in greenhouses? 1. Chrysanthemums 2. Roses 3. Carnations 4. Foliage plants 5. Geranium 6. Gladiolus 7. Poinsettias

  15. Foliage, Bedding Plants Bulb crops Cut Flowers Foliage, Roses, Bedding Plants Carnations Greenhouse Production Areas

  16. International Competition Columbia - High elevations Cool nights Mild Days - Cheap wages - Production Carnations, daisies, mums, roses

  17. Australia/New Zealand - Mild, humid climate - Production Orchids

  18. Netherlands - Cool, mild climates - Production Bulb crops Cut flowers (roses)

  19. Brazil - Warm, sunny - Production Roses

  20. Factors InfluencingLocation of Production • Cost of Production • Heating, Cooling, Labor, Land, Taxes • Product Quality • Daylength, Light Intensity, Temperature • Cost & Availability of Transportation

  21. Case Studies (examples) • Carnations • Up to 1950, costly transportation forced production near markets in the northeast even though poor quality flowers due to dark winter months • With cheaper transportation, production moved to Colorado for improved quality

  22. Chrysanthemums • Due to cheaper transportation in the 1960’s, production moved south away from markets to utilize cheap outdoor production techniques • Reductions in plant and flower quality forced production back indoors

  23. Categories ofGreenhouse Plants • Fresh flowers - flowers which are cut from the plant prior to sale (roses, mums, carnations, etc.) • Flowering plants - flower bearing plants which are sold in a pot (chrysanthemum, etc.)

  24. Green plants (foliage plants) - plants sold in a pot and valued more for their foliage than their flowers (Ivy, Rubber Trees, Ferns, etc.) • Bedding plants - young plants sold for planting around the home (Vegetables, Impatiens, Marigold, etc.) • Vegetables - grown to maturity in a greenhouse (Tomatoes, Lettuce)

  25. Future of theGreenhouse Industry • Growing demand for greenhouse crops • Expect increased production of green plants, flowering plants, bedding plants • Increased awareness of interior & exterior landscapes • Potted plants are competitive on a more local basis due to difficulties and expense of long distance transportation

  26. Although fresh flower demand will also increase, production may not increase dramatically in US due to cheaper production costs in other countries and affordable transportation to import

  27. Changing market channels • The retail florist • 85% of all fresh flowers are sold to weddings & funerals • 200 to 400% markup • The mass market • Mostly unarranged, bundled flowers • 25 to 40% markup

  28. Who is the largest retail marketer of fresh flowers in the US?

  29. Who is the largest retail marketer of fresh flowers in the US? Kroger