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CHAPTER. OUTLINE. Chapter 1. Life Expectancy vs. Healthy Life Expectancy. Lifestyle as a Health Problem. Physical Activity and Exercise Defined. Surgeon General’s Report . Fitness Standards: Health vs Physical Fitness. Benefits of Fitness. Why Physical Fitness?.

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Chapter 1


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    1. CHAPTER OUTLINE Chapter 1 Life Expectancy vs. Healthy Life Expectancy Lifestyle as a Health Problem Physical Activity and Exercise Defined Surgeon General’s Report Fitness Standards: Health vs Physical Fitness Benefits of Fitness Why Physical Fitness?

    2. Life Expectancy vs. Healthy Life Expectancy Lifestyle as a Health Problem Physical Activity and Exercise Defined Surgeon General’s Report Fitness Standards: Health vs Physical Fitness Benefits of Fitness Physical Fitness • Research findings in the last three decades have shown that physical inactivity and negative lifestyle habits increase the risk for chronic diseases and premature mortality • Widespread interest in health and preventive medicine has led to an increase in people participating in organized fitness programs

    3. Life Expectancy vs. Healthy Life Expectancy Lifestyle as a Health Problem Physical Activity and Exercise Defined Surgeon General’s Report Fitness Standards: Health vs Physical Fitness Benefits of Fitness Risks of Physical Inactivity • Physically inactive people die younger • Technological advances have greatly reduced required daily physical activity • About 400,000 deaths in the U.S. are attributed each year to physical inactivity and poor dietary habits

    4. Life Expectancy vs. Healthy Life Expectancy Lifestyle as a Health Problem Physical Activity and Exercise Defined Surgeon General’s Report Fitness Standards: Health vs Physical Fitness Benefits of Fitness Life Expectancy • Beginning of the 20th century • Life expectancy was 47 years • Major life threats were infectious diseases: tuberculosis, diphtheria, influenza, polio, etc. • Late 20th century • Infectious diseases eliminated with medical breakthroughs • Life expectancy increased to 76.9 years but living the so-called “good life” encouraged chronic diseases:hypertension, coronary heart disease, diabetes, cancer, etc.

    5. 1.1 Causes of Deaths in United Statesfor Selected Years • Physical inactivity and poor lifestyle habits have caused an increase in the incidence of chronic diseases

    6. Life Expectancy vs. Healthy Life Expectancy Lifestyle as a Health Problem Physical Activity and Exercise Defined Surgeon General’s Report Fitness Standards: Health vs Physical Fitness Benefits of Fitness Fitness Movement • The fitness movement resulted from the need to combat chronic disease • Focus became disease prevention through a healthy lifestyle

    7. Life Expectancy vs. Healthy Life Expectancy Lifestyle as a Health Problem Physical Activity and Exercise Defined Surgeon General’s Report Fitness Standards: Health vs Physical Fitness Benefits of Fitness Healthy Life Expectancyin the U.S. • Average life expectancy in the U.S. is 77.4 years • Healthy life expectancy is defined as the years of illness subtracted from life expectancy • The World Health Organization (WHO) calculated in 2000 that the healthy life expectancy of the U.S. was 24th in the world

    8. 1.2 Healthy Life Expectancy for Selected Countries

    9. Life Expectancy vs. Healthy Life Expectancy Lifestyle as a Health Problem Physical Activity and Exercise Defined Surgeon General’s Report Fitness Standards: Health vs Physical Fitness Benefits of Fitness Lifestyle as a Health Problem “ Almost 80% of deaths in the U.S. today could be prevented through a healthy lifestyle program.”

    10. Life Expectancy vs. Healthy Life Expectancy Lifestyle as a Health Problem Physical Activity and Exercise Defined Surgeon General’s Report Fitness Standards: Health vs Physical Fitness Benefits of Fitness Lifestyle as a Health Problem • Over 50% of people who die in the U.S. die because of what they do • More than half of disease is lifestyle-related • A fifth is attributed to the environment • A tenth is influenced by the health care the individual receives • Only 16% is related to genetics • The individual controls as much as 84% of vulnerability to disease and quality of life • 83% of deaths before age 65 are preventable

    11. Life Expectancy vs. Healthy Life Expectancy Lifestyle as a Health Problem Physical Activity and Exercise Defined Surgeon General’s Report Fitness Standards: Health vs Physical Fitness Benefits of Fitness Lifestyle as a Health Problem “ In essence, most people in the United States are threatened by the verylives they lead today.”

    12. Physical Activity: Bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles; requires expenditure of energy and produces progressive health benefits Exercise: A type of physical activity that requires planned, structured, and repetitive bodily movement with the intent of improving or maintaining one or more components of physical fitness Life Expectancy vs. Healthy Life Expectancy Lifestyle as a Health Problem Physical Activity and Exercise Defined Surgeon General’s Report Fitness Standards: Health vs Physical Fitness Benefits of Fitness Key Terms

    13. Life Expectancy vs. Healthy Life Expectancy Lifestyle as a Health Problem Physical Activity and Exercise Defined Surgeon General’s Report Fitness Standards: Health vs Physical Fitness Benefits of Fitness 1996 Surgeon General’s Report • Poor health because of lack of physical activity is a serious problem • More than 60% of adults do not achieve the recommended amount of physical activity • 25% are not physically active at all • Almost half of all people between 12 and 21 years of age are not vigorously active on a regular basis

    14. Life Expectancy vs. Healthy Life Expectancy Lifestyle as a Health Problem Physical Activity and Exercise Defined Surgeon General’s Report Fitness Standards: Health vs Physical Fitness Benefits of Fitness 1996 Surgeon General’s Report • Physical inactivity is more prevalent in • Women than men • African Americans and Hispanic Americans than whites • Older than younger adults • Less affluent than more affluent people • Less educated than more educated adults

    15. 1.1 Percent of Total U.S. Adult Population That Regularly Participates in Physical Activity • The 1996 report became a nationwide call to action

    16. Life Expectancy vs. Healthy Life Expectancy Lifestyle as a Health Problem Physical Activity and Exercise Defined Surgeon General’s Report Fitness Standards: Health vs Physical Fitness Benefits of Fitness Critical Thinking • Do you consciously incorporate physical activity into your daily lifestyle? • Can you provide examples? • Do you feel that you get sufficient daily physical activity to maintain good health?

    17. 1.4 Physical Activity vs. Mortality • Studies show an inverse relationship between physical activity and premature mortality rates

    18. 1.5 Fitness Levels vs. Mortality • Although greater improvements in fitness yield a slightly lower risk for premature death, the largest drop is between the low fit and the moderate fit groups

    19. Life Expectancy vs. Healthy Life Expectancy Lifestyle as a Health Problem Physical Activity and Exercise Defined Surgeon General’s Report Fitness Standards: Health vs Physical Fitness Benefits of Fitness Moderate Physical Activity • Provides benefits through regular participation • Can prevent premature death, unnecessary illness, and disability • For people who are not physically active: • Can provide substantial benefits in health and well-being • For people who are already moderately active: • Greater health and fitness benefits can be obtained when intensity of physical activity is increased

    20. Physical fitness: The ability to meet the ordinary as well as the unusual demands of daily life safely and effectively without being overly fatigued and still have energy left for leisure and recreational activities Health-related fitness: Fitness programs that are prescribed to improve the overall health of the individual; encompasses cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength and endurance, muscular flexibility, and body composition Life Expectancy vs. Healthy Life Expectancy Lifestyle as a Health Problem Physical Activity and Exercise Defined Surgeon General’s Report Fitness Standards: Health vs Physical Fitness Benefits of Fitness Key Terms

    21. Life Expectancy vs. Healthy Life Expectancy Lifestyle as a Health Problem Physical Activity and Exercise Defined Surgeon General’s Report Fitness Standards: Health vs Physical Fitness Benefits of Fitness Health-Related Fitness Cardiorespiratory endurance Muscular flexibility Body composition Muscular strength and endurance

    22. Life Expectancy vs. Healthy Life Expectancy Lifestyle as a Health Problem Physical Activity and Exercise Defined Surgeon General’s Report Fitness Standards: Health vs Physical Fitness Benefits of Fitness Critical Thinking • What role do the four health-related components of physical fitness play in your life? • Can you rank them in order of importance to you and explain your rationale in doing so?

    23. Skill-related fitness:Fitness components important for success in skillful activities and athletic events; encompasses agility, balance, coordination, power, reaction time, and speed Metabolic fitness:Improvements in the metabolic profile through a moderate-intensity exercise program in spite of little or no improvement in physical fitness measures Life Expectancy vs. Healthy Life Expectancy Lifestyle as a Health Problem Physical Activity and Exercise Defined Surgeon General’s Report Fitness Standards: Health vs Physical Fitness Benefits of Fitness Key Terms

    24. Life Expectancy vs. Healthy Life Expectancy Lifestyle as a Health Problem Physical Activity and Exercise Defined Surgeon General’s Report Fitness Standards: Health vs Physical Fitness Benefits of Fitness Motor Skill–Related Fitness

    25. Health fitness standard Minimum fitness values required for disease prevention and health Physical fitness standard Higher standard required to achieve good or excellent physical fitness Physical fitness standard Requires more intense exercise to allow people of all ages the freedom to enjoy life’s daily and recreational activities to their fullest potential Current health fitness standards are not enough to achieve these objectives Life Expectancy vs. Healthy Life Expectancy Lifestyle as a Health Problem Physical Activity and Exercise Defined Surgeon General’s Report Fitness Standards: Health vs Physical Fitness Benefits of Fitness Two Fitness Standards

    26. 1.8 Health and Fitness Benefits according to Lifestyle and Physical Activity Program • Attaining the health fitness standard requires only moderate physical activity • For high physical fitness, a high-intensity exercise program is required

    27. Life Expectancy vs. Healthy Life Expectancy Lifestyle as a Health Problem Physical Activity and Exercise Defined Surgeon General’s Report Fitness Standards: Health vs Physical Fitness Benefits of Fitness Fitness Programs Provide • Multiple health benefits • Economic benefits

    28. Life Expectancy vs. Healthy Life Expectancy Lifestyle as a Health Problem Physical Activity and Exercise Defined Surgeon General’s Report Fitness Standards: Health vs Physical Fitness Benefits of Fitness Selected Health Benefits • Improves cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, and muscular endurance • Helps maintain recommended body weight and lean body mass • Increases resting metabolic rate • Improves the immune system • Decreases risk for chronic diseases (cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, hypertension, osteoporosis)

    29. Life Expectancy vs. Healthy Life Expectancy Lifestyle as a Health Problem Physical Activity and Exercise Defined Surgeon General’s Report Fitness Standards: Health vs Physical Fitness Benefits of Fitness Selected Health Benefits • Relieves tension and stress • Raises energy levels and job productivity • Encourages positive lifestyle habits • Promotes psychological wellness • Helps maintain independent living • Extends longevity and slows down the aging process • Improves quality of life

    30. 1.9 Health Care Costs in the U.S. for Selected Years

    31. 1.10 Estimated 1989 and 1997 Healthcare Costs per Person for Selected Countries • U.S. spends more on yearly health care per person than any other industrialized nation • Yet U.S. health care ranks 37th in the world • One reason for low ranking is overemphasis on state-of-the art cures instead of prevention

    32. Life Expectancy vs. Healthy Life Expectancy Lifestyle as a Health Problem Physical Activity and Exercise Defined Surgeon General’s Report Fitness Standards: Health vs Physical Fitness Benefits of Fitness Healthy Lifestyle Habits • Participate in a lifetime physical activity program • Do not smoke cigarettes • Eat three nutritious meals each day • Avoid meaningless snacking • Maintain healthy weight • Get enough sleep

    33. Life Expectancy vs. Healthy Life Expectancy Lifestyle as a Health Problem Physical Activity and Exercise Defined Surgeon General’s Report Fitness Standards: Health vs Physical Fitness Benefits of Fitness Healthy Lifestyle Habits • Control stress • Be wary of alcohol • Surround yourself with healthy friendships • Be informed about the environment • Increase education • Take personal safety measures

    34. 1.11 2010 National Health Objectives • Two unique goals of the 2010 national health objectives emphasize increased quality and years of healthy life and seek to eliminate health disparities among all groups of people

    35. Life Expectancy vs. Healthy Life Expectancy Lifestyle as a Health Problem Physical Activity and Exercise Defined Surgeon General’s Report Fitness Standards: Health vs Physical Fitness Benefits of Fitness Critical Thinking • What are your feelings about lifestyle habits that enhance health and longevity? • How important are they to you? • What obstacles keep you from adhering to such habits or incorporating new ones into your life?

    36. Take the Stairs

    37. Implement motivational and behavior modification techniques for wellness Determine whether medical clearance is needed for exercise participation Conduct a nutrient analysis and follow recommendations for adequate nutrition Write your own nutrition and weight-control programs Life Expectancy vs. Healthy Life Expectancy Lifestyle as a Health Problem Physical Activity and Exercise Defined Surgeon General’s Report Fitness Standards: Health vs Physical Fitness Benefits of Fitness A Personalized ApproachIn this course you will learn to

    38. Assess your health-related and skill-related components of fitness Write exercise prescriptions for cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength and endurance, and muscular flexibility Understand the relationship between fitness and aging Determine your levels of tension and stress, lessen your vulnerability to stress, and implement a stress management program if necessary Life Expectancy vs. Healthy Life Expectancy Lifestyle as a Health Problem Physical Activity and Exercise Defined Surgeon General’s Report Fitness Standards: Health vs Physical Fitness Benefits of Fitness A Personalized ApproachIn this course you will learn to

    39. Write objectives to improve your fitness and wellness and learn how to chart a wellness program for the future Differentiate myths and facts about exercise and health-related concepts Life Expectancy vs. Healthy Life Expectancy Lifestyle as a Health Problem Physical Activity and Exercise Defined Surgeon General’s Report Fitness Standards: Health vs Physical Fitness Benefits of Fitness A Personalized ApproachIn this course you will learn to

    40. End of Chapter