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The Age of Jackson

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  1. Industrial Revolution in America Transportation Revolution Market Revolution The Indian Question Mass Immigration (1840s) Irish German Scandinavian(Northern and Western Europe) More democratic (small “d”) politics Revolution of 1828 “Jacksonian democracy” Religious revival and expansion 2nd Great Awakening Mormonism Universalism - Unitarianism Reform movements Temperance Abolition Education Women’s Rights Insane asylums Health care/practices Utopian communities The Age of Jackson

  2. Transportation Revolution • The period from 1800-1860 saw the massive expansion of modes and means of transportation • Included: • Roads (National or Cumberland Road) • Canals (Erie, etc.) • Railroads

  3. Map 10.3 The Transportation Revolution: Roads and Canals, 1820–1850 (p. 298)

  4. Canals • Canal building boom • Erie Canal built to connect western farmers and their products with eastern markets in New York

  5. Steamboats and Robert Fulton • Development of a commercial steamboat for shallow river travel • Transformed commerce along riverways • Fueled growth of major river cities (Cincinnati, Columbus, Louisville, Pittsburgh, St. Louis, etc.)

  6. Map 10.5 Railroads of the North and South, 1850–1860 (p. 301)

  7. Map 10.4 The Speed of News in 1817 and 1841 (p. 300)

  8. Transportation Revolution

  9. The Industrial Revolution • The Industrial Revolution was an ongoing effort, over many decades, to increase production by using machines powered by sources other than humans or animals. • In the North • Eli Whitney’s idea of interchangeable parts • Samuel Slater’s introduction of the model factory • Lowell system of labor (Lowell Textile mills) • In the South, • Whitney’s cotton gin • Increased production of cotton dramatically (KingCotton) • Increased need for slaves entrenches slavery in the southern economy

  10. Technology Celebrated (p. 284)

  11. Samuel Slater’s Spinning Frame (p. 289)

  12. Mill Girl, c. 1850 (p. 290)

  13. Map 10.6 The Nation’s Major Cities in 1840 (p. 302)

  14. Women and Immigration provide Labor

  15. Immigration

  16. Figure 11.2 The Surge in Immigration, 1842–1855 (p. 338)

  17. German, Irish, and Total Immigration, 1830 – 1860

  18. Antebellum Immigration

  19. Market Revolution - Change from local to regional to national economies • Expanding Economy - combination • Industrial • Transportation • Labor force (Immigration, Urbanization) • Surplus • Manufacturing - fromNew England to other Northern states and territories • Economic changes: early 1800s - free enterprise system - rewarded better, faster, more efficient ways of doing businesses. • Banks lent capitalfor investment • Banks printed banknotes - value fluctuated depending on the time and place that they were cashed.

  20. John Quincy Adams Fewer popular votes than Jackson Clay threw support to Adams House of Reps chose J. Q. Adams Clay became Adams’ Secretary of State Andrew Jackson Most popular votes Most electoral votes Accused Adams, Clay, and Congress of a “Corrupt Bargain” Fueled campaign for 1828 election Election of 1824:A Corrupt Bargain?

  21. Map 11.1 Presidential Election of 1824 (p. 318)

  22. Jackson enters National Politics: Election of 1824

  23. Map 11.2 Presidential Election of 1828 (p. 321)

  24. Andrew Jackson • President from 1828-1836 • “Old Hickory” • Democratic-Republican (shortened to Democrats) • First non-”notable” to be elected president

  25. Jacksonian Democracy • More ‘power’ to the common man. • Gave the ‘common’ man (western farmers, southern yeoman, etc. a feeling of franchisement. • Key state-level democratic reforms • -Universal male suffrage • -“King Caucus” • -Popular campaigning • -More elected offices • -Rotation in office

  26. Revolution of 1828: Jacksonian Democracy • A more democratic society - small “d” democratic • Common people felt they had a representative in the White House • “Spoils System”

  27. Two-Party System • Effectively ended the One party system of Democratic-Republicans. • Opposition party formed called the “Whigs”

  28. Whigs and Democrats

  29. Figure 11.1 Changes in Voting Patterns, 1824–1840 (p. 320)

  30. Andrew Jackson: Issues • Nationalism vs. States’ Rights • Nullification and Federal Authority • Bank of the United States • Indian Removal

  31. The Nullification Crisis • Tariff of 1828 (Tariff of Abominations) - hurt southern cotton producers • Perceived as a sectional law favoring manufacturing interests in the NE. • John C. Calhoun - South Carolina Exposition and Protest

  32. The Nullification Crisis • Tariff of 1828 (Tariff of Abominations) - hurt southern cotton producers • Perceived as a sectional law favoring manufacturing interests in the NE. • John C. Calhoun - South Carolina Exposition and Protest

  33. Nullification Crisis of 1833 • Tariff of 1832 passed. • South Carolina convention ‘nullified’ them both • Jackson threatened force (Force Bill of 1833) if SC didn’t abide by federal law • Jackson despised nullification calling it unconstitutional • 1833 - Compromise tariff engineered by….. (drum roll) Henry Clay.

  34. Sectionalism vs. NationalismTariff of 1832 (Abominations) • Maysville Road Veto • Webster-Hayne Debate • Nullification • States’ Rights?

  35. Jackson hated the 2nd BUS manager, Nicholas Biddle 1832 - Jackson vetoed the re-charter of the Bank Bill Jackson saw the Bank as harmful to the western farmers with it’s tight money policies Viewed Bank as favoring privilege and industry The Bank of the United States (BUS)

  36. Jackson’s View of the Bank of the United States (BUS)

  37. Jackson Destroys the Bank (p. 326)

  38. King Andrew the First • Jackson re-defined the executive power of the presidency • Critics depicted him as depicted him as a tyrant and maverick

  39. Jackson and the Bank of the United States

  40. The Panic of 1837 • Jackson withdrew all federal funds from the BUS and deposited them in ‘pet banks’ • Spawned a speculative land fever on western lands = massive inflation of land values (overvalued) • 1836 - Jackson issued the “Specie Circular” ordering all land purchases be made in gold and silver. • Paper banknotes lost their value and land sales plummeted • Panic of 1837 - led to an economic depression until the early 1840s.

  41. US Indian Policy: 1820-1850

  42. U. S. Federal Indian Policy • 1810-20 - War of 1812, death of Tecumseh and pan-Indian alliance, Creek Wars, Indian Springs Treaty of 1825, Seminole Wars • 1830 - Indian Removal Act - Gave President authority to trade SE tribes for their land in east for land in west. Provided money for land transfer and relocation • Black Hawk’s War (1832)

  43. Black Hawk (1767–1838) (p. 328)

  44. Indian Policy and the Cherokee Nation • Supreme Court decisions • Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831) - Marshall denied Cherokee claim as a separate republic. Rather, they were a domestic dependent nation. - ward of the US • Worcester v. Georgia (1832) - Marshall held that Cherokees were a distinct political community and entitled to federal protection from state interference (from Georgia) • Jackson’s response was: ‘John Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it.’ • 1838 - Forced removal of remaining Cherokee to Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma) - along the “Trail of Tears”

  45. Indian Removal in the 1830s

  46. Map 11.3 The Removal of Native Americans, 1820–1843 (p. 327) •file:///Users/jcorn/Desktop/APUSH%20PPTS/Animations/Indian%20Removal.htm

  47. Andrew Jackson’s Legacy • Still debated. Admired by some, hated by others. • Strong influence on his generation both politically and economically. • Defined an era…