Tariff of 1816 • Because British goods were stockpiled in America due to the War of 1812, British goods were much cheaper than American goods • Proposed by president James Monroe in order to make the competition fair. • This tariff increased the price of British goods and helped the American goods thrive.
Supreme Court decisions • Gibbons V. Ogden • Ogden – steamboat operator that believed only he was legally allowed to operate on the NJ/NY Hudson • Gibbons – another steamboat operator that wanted to use the river • Ogden sued Gibbons to make him stop • Supreme court ruled that only the federal government had the authority to regulate interstate commerce. • Federal government has the authority to regulate anything that crosses state lines.
Supreme Court decisions • McCulloch V. Maryland • Maryland levied huge taxes upon a small branch of the Bank of the United States hoping to make it fail. • John Marshall said “the power to tax is the power to destroy” • Upheld the Bank of the United States as constitutional
American Foreign Policy • Nationalism • John Quincy Adams- Secretary of state • The belief that national interests should be placed ahead of regional concerns or the interests of other countries • Monroe Doctrine • 1823- President Monroe warned all outside powers not to interfere with affairs in the Western Hemisphere. • Any such action would be seen as “dangerous to our peace and safety” • Also maintained that the US would not interfere with existing colonies in the Western Hemisphere.
Change in America • Rush Bagot Treaty • Led to the United States and Canada to completely demilitarize their common border. • Convention of 1818 • US and Canada finalize their boarder at the 49th Parallel up to the Rocky Mountains. • US and England would jointly occupy areas in the Oregon territory and lands west of the Rockies for ten years. • Adams-Onis Treaty • Spain Ceded Florida to the United States and gave up its claim to the Oregon territories.
Missouri Compromise • Until 1818 the United States consisted of 10 free states and 10 slave states. • Illinois was admitted as the 11th free state. • Expectations were for MO to be a slave state, maintaining the balance. • Under the direction of Henry Clay • Maine was admitted as a free state and MO as a slave state. • The rest of the LA territory was split into two spheres or interest, one slaveholders and one free. • The dividing line was 36º30’ N. latitude
Jefferson reflecting on the MO Compromise • “This momentous question, like a firebell in the night, awakened and filled me with terror. I considered it at once as the knell of the Union. It is hushed, indeed, for the moment. But this is a reprieve only, not a final sentence.
Andrew Jackson • Appealed to the common man. • Formed a new political party, the Democratic Republicans. • Spoils system – As incoming President, Jackson fired former appointees and hired his friends. • Similar to a new football coach. Ooh Mr. Jackson
Indian Removal Act of 1830 • Under this law, the Fed. Government provided funds to negotiate treaties that would force the NA to move west.
Trail of Tears • Beginning in November of 1838, the Cherokee were sent off in groups of about 1,000 approx. 800 miles by foot. • More than ¼ of the Cherokee died during this march.
Tariff of Abominations • After the War of 1812, America was flooded with low cost imports. • In order to protect America, congress passed a tax in 1816 on imported goods. The tax was increased in 1824 and again in 1828. • This was known as the Tariff of Abominations • It caused the South to pay for more expensive goods in the north rather than importing cheap goods. • “The measures of the federal government… will soon involve the whole South in irretrievable ruin.”
Prominent Political Parties • Federalists – Hamilton • Anti-Federalists - Jefferson • Democratic Republicans – Andrew Jackson • Whig – Clay, JQA, Webster • Wanted to use federal money to make projects, control the banking system and for a national currency.
Panic of 1837 • After much debating and nullification of the National Bank, New York banks stopped accepting paper currency. • Pet banks (small non national banks) were printing notes, now deemed worthless. • Bank closings and the collapse of the credit system cost many people their savings, bankrupted hundreds of businesses, and put more than a third of the population out of work.
Reform in America • Second Great Awakening • Revivalism- awakening of religious faith • Transcendentalism- simple life and nature • Henry David Thoreau – Walden’s Pond • Ralph Waldo Emerson – 1500 works • Unitarianism- utopian society.
Slavery and Abolition • William Lloyd Garrison • White abolitionist that started the paper known as The Liberator • Frederick Douglass • Educated slave that escaped slavery and lead fought for emancipation • Nat Turner • Along with 80 slaves, Turner lead a revolt and killed 4 plantation owners • Eventually he was caught and executed.
Women and Reform • Temperance movement • Prohibiting drinking alcohol and the move for women’s rights. • Seneca Falls Convention • Run by Elizabeth Statton and Lucretia Mott, women banded together for the first time to proclaim equal rights. • Wrote “Declaration of Sentiments” • Sojourner Truth • Freed slave woman that began preaching around the country for abolition and women’s rights
America Continues Expansion • Market System • Specialization • Capitalism • Entrepreneurs • Samuel F.B. Morse – Telegraph • John Deere – First Steel Plow
Manifest Destiny • Go West, Young Man • It is not only our job, but God’s will that the United States and it’s people expand as far west as possible. • Santa Fe Trail – led 780 miles from MO to NM • Oregon Trail – Path stretching from Independence, MO to Portland, Oregon