The Age of Jackson 1829 - 1837
Presidential Election • John Quincy Adams is elected president over Jackson in 1824 • Jackson won the popular vote, but neither candidate received a majority in the electoral vote • Corrupt Bargain – Henry Clay influenced the House of Representatives to elect Adams and was appointed Clay Secretary of State
Voting Requirements • Prior to 1828 majority of Americans were content with allowing the aristocracy to select the President. • Aristocracy – wealthy, educated, privileged class • By 1828 most states got rid of property qualifications for voting, therefore more people could vote
Election of 1828 • Adams – characterized as an intellectual elitist • Jackson – characterized as a man of humble origins, “president for the common man” • In reality Jackson was a wealthy plantation owner
General Jackson’s Military Career • Defeated the Creeks at Horseshoe Bend in 1814 • Defeated the British at New Orleans in 1815 • Took Florida and claimed it for the US in 1819. • Loved by his soldiers called him “Old Hickory”
jackson the man JACKSON THE MAN 1824, Thomas Jefferson said of Jackson “When I was President of the Senate he was a Senator; and he could never speak on account of the rashness of his feelings. I have seen him attempt it repeatedly, and as often choke with rage. His passions are no doubt cooler now….BUT HE IS A DANGEROUS MAN.”
Jackson’s Top Ten 10. Andrew Jackson was the first President from a state west of the Appalachian Mountains. 9. Andrew Jackson was the first Tennessean to serve in the U.S. House of Representatives. 8. Andrew Jackson was the first territorial Governor of Florida. 7. Andrew Jackson was the first person to serve as a U.S. Representative, Senator, and President. 6. Andrew Jackson exercised his veto power 12 times as President, more than all of his predecessors combined.
Jackson’s Top Ten 5. Andrew Jackson was the first President to articulate that as President he represented all the people and the will of the majority must govern. 4. Andrew Jackson helped found and was the first U.S. President to represent the Democratic Party. 3. Andrew Jackson is the only U.S. President to be censured by the U.S. Senate. The censure (official criticism) was cancelled in the last year of his presidency.
Jackson’s Top Ten 2. The first assassination attempt on a sitting U.S. President occurred on January 30, 1835, when Robert Lawrence failed to slay Andrew Jackson. 1. Andrew Jackson was the only President in American History to pay off the national debt and leave office with the country in the black.
Common man cluster • Common Man and the west become politically powerful • Jackson brought democracy to the Common man Land easy to obtain in the West so property qualifications were dropped Education not as important BricklayersBlacksmith FarmersCarpentersThe Working Class Rise of the Common Man and The New Democracy Jackson stood for the common man which was most of the population Other Common Men in US History: Davy CrockettSam Houston Powerful movement in the country to expand involvement and participation of the common man in democracy.
New Democracy NEW DEMOCRACY JEFFERSONIAN DEMOCRACY People should be governed as little possible JACKSONIAN DEMOCRACY Whatever governing needed to be done, it should be done by the common man.“Government by the majority of people; instead of a government governed by the upper class was introduced during Jackson’s Presidency. • Property ownership/education not needed to vote • Growth of political power of the working class • Increased number of elected officials • Land easy to get out West • Ideas of the DOI become important and people saw inequalities in society.
President Jackson • Presidential veto - the right of a president to reject bills passed by the legislature. • Spoils system – to the victor belongs the spoils • Rewarded loyal friends from the campaign with government positions
Spoils System • Jackson’s policy was said to be product of the “kitchen cabinet,” a group of close friends who also served as his informal advisors
President Jackson • Indian Removal Act of 1830 • Jackson believed assimilation would not work and reservations required too many soldiers to prevent white settlement • Indian Removal Act – a series of treaties that moved Native American Tribes west
Worcester v. Georgia (1832) • Supreme court rules that Georgia does not have the right to regulate the Cherokee or invade its lands • Andrew Jackson on the subject: “John Marshall has made his decision; now let him enforce it.”
Trail of Tears • November 1838 – Cherokee made an 800-mile trip west • Government officials stole their money • Outlaws stole their livestock • More than a quarter of the Cherokee died along the way
Don’t Drink the Water Come out, come out no use in hiding Come out, come out can you not see? There’s no place here, what were you expecting? Not room for both, just room for me So you will lay your arms down Yes I will call this home Away, away you’ve been banished Your land is gone and given to me And as you go I will spread my wings Yes I will call this home Don't Drink the Water
Tariff of 1828Tariff of Abominations • Limited exports from Great Britain forcing the South to buy more expensive items from the North • John C. Calhoun – nullification • Questioned the legality of applying federal laws in sovereign states • U.S. was a compact of sovereign states which could nullify, or reject a law considered unconstitutional
Jackson vs. Calhoun (Pres. vs. VP) Jackson on Calhoun’s Beliefs on nullification & secession: Calhoun’s rebuttal: “The Union, next to our liberty, the most dear; may we all remember that can only be preserved by respecting the rights of the States…” • “Our Union; it must be preserved!” Calhoun resigns as VP in 1832…
Jackson on Calhoun & Clay… "I have only 2 regrets: that I have not shot Henry Clay or hanged John C. Calhoun."
South Carolina Rebels • Tariff of 1832 caused South Carolina to threaten to secede or withdraw from the Union • Jackson threatened military action against South Carolina • Henry Clay proposed a bill that would gradually decrease the taxes of 10 years
The National Bank • Viewed the bank as a “tool of the elite” or “privileged institution” • In 1832, Jackson vetoed the re-chartering of the bank • Jackson began removing government funds and placing them in state banks called “pet banks”
Panic of 1837 • A direct result of the closing of the National Bank • “Pet banks”over-speculated and paper money became nearly worthless • People lost their savings, businesses went bankrupt and 1/3 of the population was out of work
Jackson’s Legacy • Increase of respect and power for the common man • Voting rights expanded to all white male adult citizens, rather than only land owners in that group • Increased the strength of the Executive branch at the expense of the Legislative branch
Conflicts in Jackson’s Administration • Tariff • Nullification • Indian • Second Bank • Panic of 1837 – Specie Circular
Texas Saga • Austin • Houston • Alamo • San Jacinto • Sectionalism – Slavery – Annexation debate
Politics • Old Hickory • Corrupt Bargain • Kitchen Cabinet • Spoils System • Universal Manhood Suffrage • Jacksonian Democrats