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Mexico’s Fight for Independence. New Spain(Modern Day Mexico and Central America) was one of Spain's most profitable Colonies. Issues in New Spain early 1800’s. Creoles want full equality of the peninsulares Merchants wanted open trade with other nations Could only trade with spain

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mexico s fight for independence

Mexico’s Fight for Independence

New Spain(Modern Day Mexico and Central America) was one of Spain's most profitable Colonies

issues in new spain early 1800 s
Issues in New Spain early 1800’s
  • Creoles want full equality of the peninsulares
    • Merchants wanted open trade with other nations
      • Could only trade with spain
  • Meztizo working class- Mines & farming wanted better wages
    • Angry- at elite land owners controlling food prices
    • Elite would hold onto suplies of food until hit max price
  • The Indigenous and Mullatos want end to Tribute
    • Tax paid to large land owners and the gov
  • Small slave population wants freedom
situation in spain
Situation in Spain
  • 1808-1810 Napoleon takes control of Spain
    • Creole elites take this opportunity to fight for independence
    • They fear Napoleons liberal government will take their rights
    • They “claimed” to fight for King Ferdinand VII
initial uprising
Initial uprising
  • Centered in Queretaro Group of middle and upper-class creoles planned a revolt
    • needed support of masses so sympathized with demands of the Indigenous and mestizo.
    • Father Miguel Hidalgo(creole) had influence to recruit the masses
  • Spanish Authorities began to arrest rebel conspiritors
father miguel hidalgos revolt
Father Miguel Hidalgos Revolt
  • Grito de Dolores- Sept 16th 1810 Hidalgo gathered his parishioners declared New Spain free from the Spanish Crown
  • The mod went on to take control of the city
  • By Sept 28 took key city of Guanajuato
    • Killed many Spaniards
    • Attacked may business

( most owned by Creoles)

    • Opened to Grain

storage for the poor

fear in hidalgo s revolution
Fear in Hidalgo’s Revolution
  • Hidalgo’s army fought for the right of the poor
  • Creole elites wanted freedom not a class and race revolution
  • Hidalgo’s goals
    • Independence from Spain
    • End of Slavery
    • End of tribute
    • More equality for all social classes
    • No forced labor
    • Better wages
  • These changes would take power from Creole elites
hidalgo s peasant army
Hidalgo’s Peasant Army
  • His soldiers began to take vengeance on both Spaniards and Creole elites
  • His forces were unable to take Mexico City and were driven north
  • By Summer of 1811 Hidalgo and his leaders were captured and executed
jose maria morelos
Jose Maria Morelos
  • Morelos was a Priest who continued the fight of Hidalgo
    • mestizo
    • His forces centered south of Mexico City

His goals were the same as Hidalgos

-Independence from Spain, End of Slavery, End of tribute, equality for all social classes, No forced labor, Better wages

  • He worked to gain more support of some Creole Elites( some views were too radical
  • His forces were centered in the state of Oaxaca
  • His use of Guerrilla tactics were very effective
national congress of chilpancingo1813
National Congress of Chilpancingo1813
  • Created a Congress inviting many creole revolutionaries
    • Set himself as chief executive
    • Created a Judicial and Legislative Branch
    • Enacted many of the social changes he planned
  • Congress only had control of southern territories he controlled
  • Congress did not have a stable home
the down fall of morelos
The Down Fall of Morelos
  • Lost battles to royalist forces using traditional war methods
  • Some of his changes too radical to gain full Creole support

-Many fought against him

3. 1814 King Ferdinand VII regains power in Spain

-More Spanish troops are sent to stop Rebellion in New Spain

In 1815 Morelos is captured, put on trial, and executed 12/22

1815 1820 guerrilla fighting continued
1815-1820 Guerrilla fighting continued
  • fighting against Royalists continued with no central Organization
  • Vicente Guerrero Continued a Guerrilla campaign against Royalist forces in Oaxaca(Southern Mexico)
    • Mix Creole, Indigenous, Black
  • The Cost of fighting, high taxes, and mistreatment of Creoles by Spain began to anger the elites
creole elites take control of the revolution
Creole Elites Take Control of the Revolution
  • 1820 Spanish King Ferdinand VII was deposed(temporily)
  • New Spanish Gov enacted liberal Constitution
    • This would take some rights from the Creole elite
  • Augustine Iturbide-Royalist Creole
    • Feared losing power and used this as an excuse to rebel
    • Switched sidesto join
    • Revolutionary
      • (Ironic- joined rebels to

keep creole elite control)

opposites combine iturbide asked guerrero to join in support
Opposites CombineIturbide asked Guerrero to join in support

Guerrero(Liberal)

Iturbide(Conservative)

Independence from Spain

Catholic Church

Monarchy

Equality of peninsulares and creoles

  • Independence from Spain
  • Catholic Church
  • Representative Republic
  • Liberal social reforms of Hidalgo
mexico is free
Mexico is Free
  • Aug 24, 1821 Treaty of Cordoba Signed- The Mexican Empire was declared independent
  • The combined forces enter Mexico City Minimal resistance
  • Iturbide is crowned Emperor
    • Short lived He steps down from power
    • A Republican government is formed
  • Name Mexico comes from the name of the Aztecs MEXICA.